- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1599
NOW was the state of Ireland in a manner desperate, for the whole Nation almost was broken forth into rebellion; some by the reason of injuries and military insolency of the garrison Souldiers, some out of feare of the adverse factions which through the iniquity of the times were growne strong, some for the happy successe of the Rebels, some because they were left undefended against the robberies of cruell Theeves, some seduced by perswasions of Priests, and others led away with a false rumor spred abroad by the principall plotter of the rebellion that the Queene was determined to conquer the Irish Nation, and utterly to roote them out.
2. It was seriously consulted in England what fit man should be found to quench this rebellion. The Queene and most of the Councell cast their eyes upon Charles Blunt Lord Montjoy. But the Earle of Essex covertly signified unto them that hee was a man of no experience in the warres, save that hee had commanded a Company in the Low-Countries and little Britaine; that hee was a man of a small estate, strengthened with very few followers and dependants, and too much drowned in book learning. That into Ireland was to be sent some prime man of the Nobility which was strong in power, honour, and wealth, in favour with military men, and which had beene before Generall of an Army, so as he seemed to point with the finger to himselfe, insomuch as the Queene was now resolved to make him Lord Deputy of Ireland and Generall of the Army; which notwithstanding he made a shew to refuse, praying her to bestow so difficult a charge upon some other, and yet if any other were named, he had somewhat in a readinesse to object. And in such sort did he beare himselfe, that he seemed to his adversaries to wish nothing more then to have an Army under his command, and to binde martiall men unto him, and that with such earnest seeking that some feared lest he intertained some monstrous designe, especially seeing he shewed his contumacy more and more against the Queene that had beene most bountifull to him; and his followers made great cracks [boastful claims], as that he was descended from the Royall family of the Scots by the eldest daughter of Alan of Galloway (who notwithstanding was not of the Royall stocke), and of the blood Royall of England by Cecily Bourchier his great Grand-mother, who was descended both from Thomas of Woodstocke, the youngest son of King Edward the third, and also from Richard Earle of Cambridge. That hereupon he had better title to the scepter of Englan then any other of the competiters, whose titles (except that of the Infanta of Spaine) Dolmans booke dedicated to him had confuted.
3. Neither were these content to extoll the Noblenesse of his descent, but they heaped praises upon him everywhere for his Religion, Fortitude, and Wisedome. All these things others in the Court, with wished him rather absent then present, cunningly exaggerated, and pricked him foward that was running before, setting before him the hope of eternall glory amongst posterity, and love and honor amongst the multitude; beseeching him for the singular and continuall love he had borne to the Common-wealth that hee would undertake this charge, and promising him largely all helpe and kindnesse. These men, being a subtill kinde of enemies, under colour of friendship openly commending him above measure and raising a marvellous expectation of him, practised their secret enmities more eagerly, knowing well that the fiercenesse of his youth would be his undoing, and that there is not any more easie way to overthrow a popular man then by thrusting him forward into a businesse for which he is unable. What need many words? Hee, though hee were of a lively and quicke understanding, either perceived not, or would not perceive these practises, whilest first to his, and then to himselfe, he seemed able, yea, more then able for the greatest businesses. Hereupon he was to the publike rejoycing of all men made Lord Deputy of Ireland, with most ample power to prosecute or compound the warre, and (which he had obtained by importunity) to remit and pardon crimes of high treason, even to Tir-Oen himselfe. Which power notwithstanding to pardon had beene restrayed in all former Patents of the Lord Deputies, in these words: Treasons touching our person, our heires and successors, excepted. And providently he did obtaine this power to pardon crimes of this kinde, forasmuch as the Laywers doe pronounce All manner of rebellions to touch the Princes person. An Army was appointed unto him as great as he would require, and such a one as Ireland had never seene before, to wit, 16000 foot, and 1300 horse; which was alfterwards also made up <to> 20000. And there was nothing which hee wished, but the officious (I will not say guilefull) helpe of his adversaries did obtaine it for him. And that they might intangle the heedlesse Earle in their hidden nets, they set forth spyes against him to observe his actions, note his speeches, and increase all things still to the worse. He had in charge (to omit usuall matters, and this also, that he should not bestow the dignity of Knighthood but upon well deserving and worthy men) to passe by all other Rebels whatseoever and bend his whole Forces against Tir-Oen the Arch-Rebell, and forthwith to presse him with Garisons at La Foyl and Belashanon; which point he had alwayes hammered upon as necessary to bee done, and had reproachfully objected to the the former Lord Deputies and Norris that it had beene neglected, and the warre protracted by often parleyes with the enemy. A Proclamation was sent beforehand into Ireland, wherein is declared that the Irish Rebels had so long abused the Queenes Clemency and patience, that now shee was constrained to exercise her power to bridle them. But so farre was shee from conquering Ireland that shee never had such a thought, nor indeed had cause to have, forasmuch as the farre greater part of the Noblemen and people continue constant in their alleagiance. To the Rebels which shall returne to their obedience shee offereth mercy, and to the rest she threatneth destruction. And that to this purpose she had chosen the Earle of Essex as her Minister of Clemency and Justice, whose Fortitude, Prudence, Fidelity, and Felicity had beene most approved.
4. The Earle followed shortly after about the end of the moneth of March, departing out of London accompanied with a gallant traine of the flower of the Nobility, and saluted by the people with joyfull acclamations; but the cleere day turned to thunder, and a great showre followed soone after. In sayling over hee was tossed to and fro with a contrary winde, yet at length he arrived in Ireland, and having received the sword according to custome, he presently made the Earle of Southampton Generall of the horse, contrary to that hee had received in charge; and by the perswasion of some of the Queenes Councell there, whose mindes were too much bent upon their owne private good, he advanced his colours with all his Forces against certaine petty Rebels in Munster, neglecting the Arch-Rebell, and not acquainting the Queene. He took Cahir Castle of Edmund Butlers Baron of Cahir, environed with the river Swire, being a receptacle of the Rebels; he spred a terror of him all about, driving away a great number of Cattell, and dispersed the Rebels round about into the woods and thickets. Yet in the meane time was there no small defeate received through the cowardize of some under the leading of Henry Harington, whom he punished with more sharpe discipline. And he returned not till after the middle of July, his men being weary, distressed, and their companies incredibly wasted; and hee himselfe was most grievouly inflamed with displeasure for that the Queene in the meane time had conferred on Sir Robert Cecyl the rich office of Mastership of the Wards, which in a credulous hope hee had promised to himselfe. When the Queene tooke hardly and heavily this expedition whereby so great losse was sustained, and urged him to goe into Ulster against Tir-Oen, he wrote letters and laid the fault upon the counsellors of Ireland, unto whom in regard of their manifold experience in Irish matters he could not but condescend, promising religiously that he would presently invade Ulster. This letter was scarce delivered when he signified by another that he must of necessity turne aside into Offale a neere Country to Dublin, against the O-Conors and O-Moyles that were there up in rebellion, whom he easily and happily suppressed.
5. Being returned, he found his Army so lessened that hee demanded a new supply of men by letters under the hands of the Counsellors of Ireland, for the expedition which he was now ready to make into Ulster. Being now determined to convert the warre against Tir-Oen, he commanded Sir Coniers Clifford Governour of Connacht to march with his light armed companies towards Belick, to the end the Rebels Forces might be distracted whilest hee should set upon them in another part. Clifford set forth presently with 1500 men whom he commanded, being tyred with a long march and ill provided of powder, to passe the Curlew hills, whereof when they had passed a great part, the Rebels under the leading of O-Rork, the sonne of him who wee said before was hanged, charged them at unawares. The English easily repulsed them in the beginning, and marched forward; the Rebels followed them, and when they perceived that their powder failed, charged upon them againe and put them to flight, being growne feeble with their long march and too weake to resist. Clifford, together with Sir Alexander Ratcliff of Ordfall, Knight, and many old Souldiers were slaine.
6. Mean while the supply which the Lord Deputy required was leavied in England and sent; but within a few dayes he gave advertisement by other letters that this yeere hee could doe no more but goe unto the confines of Ulster with 1300 foot and 300 horse. Whither when he was come, Tir-Oen shewed himselfe one or two dayes with his men upon the hils a farre off, and at length by Hagan craved a parley with the Lord Deputy. He refused it, but answered if Tir-Oen would, he might speake with him the next day in the head of the Army. Upon which day, after a light skirmish, an horseman from Tir-Oens troopes cried with a loud voyce that the Earle would not fight but parley with the Lord Deputy, but by no meanes betwixt the Armes.
7. The next day, as the Lord Deputy was marching forward in troope, Hagan met him and told him that Tir-Oen craved the Queenes mercy and a peace, and besought him that he might be heard; which if he would grant, hee would with all observance wait for him at the forde of a river hard by called Balla Clinch not farre from Louth, the chiefe Towne of the County. Thither did the Lord Deputy send some before to view the place. They found Tir-Oen at the forde, who told them that though the river were swelled, yet might they easily be heard from the one side to the other. Hereupon the Lord Deputy, having placed a troope of horse upon the next hill, descended alone. Tir-Oen, riding his horse into the water up to the belly, saluted the Lord Deputy on the rivers banke with great observance, and with many words interchanged betwixt them without anybody to heare them, almost an houre was spent. An houre or two after, Con the base sonne of Tir-Oen followed the Lord Deputy and besought him in his fathers name that another parley might be had, to which some men of prime quality on both sides might be admitted. The Lord Deputy assented, so as they might not be above six in number. At the day appointed, Tir-Oen shewed himselfe at the forde with his brother Cor-Mac, Mac-Gennys, Mac-Guire, Ever Mac-Cowly, Henry Ovington, and O-Quine. Unto them descended the Lord Deputy with the Earle of Southampton, Sir George Bourchier, Sir Warham Sentleger, Sir Henry Danvers, Sir Edward Wingfield, and Sir William Constable, Knights. Every of which the Earle saluted with great curtesie, and after some few words passed betwixt them it was thought good that Commissioners should treat a peace the next day. Betwixt whom it was agreed that there should be a truce from six weekes to six weekes, to begin from that very day, till the first of May; yet so as if it shiould bee free on both sides to renew the warre after fourteene dayes warning And if any Confederate of the Earl of Tir-Oens would not give assent, hee should leave him to bee prosecuted by the Lord Deputy.
8. Whilest these things are in doing, the letter which even now I spake of was brought to the Queene by Henry Cuffe, whereby when shee understood that the Earle with so strong an Army, in so long a time, and with so great expense of money, had effected nothing, nor would effect that yeere, she was much moved, and taxed his Counsailes as over rash, unhappy, nad full of contempt against her; and she stucke not (inclining to I know not what suspicion) to say to some that hee cast somewhat else in his minde then to doe his Prince and Countrey service in Ireland. Yet would shee not call him home (though some perswaded her unto it), supposing it a point of extreme folly to provoke him now againe being armed, whom shee had before provoked, and armed being provoked. But she wrote backe to him and her Councell of Ireland that she could not sufficiently marvaile why the Lord Deputy by prolonging the time, and framing of causes one after another for his delay, had lost goodly opportunityes of working great matters against the Rebels; who while he was in England was of opinion that nothing else was to be done but to prosecute Tir-Oen onely; and this he promised largely divers times by his letters. She expostulated why, contrary to his owne sound judgement, he had undertaken those expeditions into Munster and Offale which had brought so much dammage, whereof he had not advertised her so much as in a word before such time as they were undertaken, which otherwise shee would have prohibited. If his Army were now weakened and wasted, why did he not prosecute the enemy while it was whole, strong, and complete? If the Spring time were not fit to make warre in Ulster, why was the Summer, why was Autumne neglected? Was no time of the yeere fit for that warre? She now foresaw that the Realme of England would be above measure exhausted with expences, and undergoe some note of infamy amongst forreiners, by reason of this adverse successe of the warre; yea, and that those which were to write the histories of this time would leave it recorded to after ages that shee had left nothing undone for the conservation of her kingdeome of Ireland, but he had omitted nothing for the loosing thereof, unlesse hee would now at length enter into another manner of warre. She therefore more sharply admonished both him and the Councellors of the Realme more considerately to provide for the good of the Common-wealth, and not be drawne from thenceforth into crosse courses by unsound counsailes, withall to write under her unto what passe they had brought the State of Ireland, and carefully to foresee that no detriment might be received thereafter.
9. With these letters the Lord Deputy was incensed, and grieved also in minde for other matters for which the Queene had sharply chided him, because he he had, contrary to that she had commanded him, not removed the Earle of Southampton from the place of Generall of the horse (for the Queene had taken displeasure against Southampton, because he had without acquainting her, contrary to that which Noblemen were wont to doe, secretly married Elizabeth Vernon the Earle of Essex his Aunts daughter); but vexed he was most of all that the Queene had bestowed the Mastership of the Wards upon Sir Robert Cecyl, as I have said; he beganne therefore to cast himselfe into darke clouds and troublesome stormes, he cast in his minde sinister designes of returning into England with select bands, and reducing his adversaries into his power by armed hand, being perswaded that many would side with him, partly out of love, and parly out of desire of innovation. But the Earle of Southampton and Sir Christopher Blunt, who had married his mother, deterred him from this attempt as wicked, bloody, hatefull, and dangerous.
10. Whether the Queene had any intelligence hereof by some secret discovery I know not. But certainely at the same time, upon uncertaine rumors, which were readily credited, of a Spanish Fleet prepared, 6000 of the best trayned souldiers on foot were leavied at London, whereof 3000 were to guard the Queenes person, the rest should bee at hand upon all occasions, and as stronger and most select Army was sent for out of the Countreyes round about adjoyning. Al which were under the command of Charles Howard Earle of Notthingham Lord Admirall of England, with the title of Supreme Commander, with ample authority as well against forreine enemies as domesticall rebels. But within a few dayes after, this Army was discharged.
11. Within a moneth the Earle of Essex hasted into England, sooner then all men thought, with certaine choyce friends of his, namely the Earle of Southampton, who was removed from the Generalship of horse, the Baron of Dunkellen, Sir Christopher St. Laurence, the Baron of Houth’s sonne, Sir Henry Danvers, who was not yet recovered of a sore hurt, Sir Henry Docwray, and other Captaines, and some Gentlemen of his houshold, of whom the most part as soone as they arrived departed some one way some another. He went forward to Nonesuch (where the Queene lay), accompanied with no more then six persons, to informe her of the State of Ireland. The Lord Grey of Wilton, who was one of his sharpest enemies, overtooke him on the way and saluted him not. And whereas the Earle feared lest hee would doe him some bad office at the Court, and Sir Thomas Gerard overtaking him had kindely, but in vaine, requested him not to doe him any bad office, St. Lauarence offered him his service to kill both him in the way, and the Secretary in the Court. But the Earle, hating from his soule all impiety, would not assent unto it; and so made such haste that he fell on his knees betimes in the morning before the Queene in her Privy Chamber, when she little thought of it. Shee entertained him with a short conference somewhat graciously, but not with that countenance as she was wont, and willed him to depart to his Chamber and there keepe himselfe. For being displeased at him before, hee now incurred her displeasure anew, for that contrary to her commandement he had left Ireland without her leave, and had made such a truce as might be broken every foureteene dayes, whereas it was in his power to have ended the matter with the Rebels by agreement, and to have given them a pardon for treason. Being questioned by the Councell why he contracted such a truce with the Rebels, he answered that Tir-Oen was so confident in his strength that hee proudly refused all conditions of peace, unlesse all the Rebels in Ireland might be pardoned their offences, the Irish might be restored to their possessions which the English enjoyed, and the Romish Religion might bee freely exercised throughout the whole kingdome. And these conditons he perswaded the Queene to ratifie. But when these things were misliked of them all as most unworthy, and his unexpected returne into England, and with such company, was not without suspition, which his adversaries at Court increased with divers fictions, the Queene thought meet she should be committed to custody, yet not in any prison, lest she might seeme to cut off from him all hope of her ancient favour, but in the Lord Keepers house, lest having his liberty hee might be farre withdrawne from his duty through the corrupt counsailes of turbulent men. He tooke it in great indignation that the returne of him and his was had in such suspition. For I have seene a writing under his owne hand, wherein he digested in a very goodly method the things which he ghessed would be objected unto him, to wit, first, that neglecting his instructions, he had delayed his expedition into Ulster, losing opportunities and wasting the Queenes Forces and treasure else-where. Then, that he made a truce advantagious to the Rebels. And lastly, that matters being not setled in Ireland, hee had left the Country in contempt of the Queenes prohibition, and returned with so many military men. Under these objections he wrote this answere: Before I left Ireland, I setled the government for Martiall matters throughout the Provinces in that forme as it is now administered, and ever since for the space of these nine months no dammage hath beene received. There is no cause why those which accompanied me should be had in suspition: very few they were, and just causes they had to returne, and not above six accompanied mee to the Court. Could I doe any mischiefe with so small a company? It had beene as easie for mee to have done ill as to have thought ill, when I had the kingdome of Ireland and an Army under my command. If I had boyled with desire of revenge, I needed not the helpe of others. For whosoever is a contemner of his owne life is Lord over another mans. But I know who it is that said Revenge is mine, and I will repay it. Shall calumniation worke so much against me that this my returne should be suspected, which have worne out my body with labours in my Princes service, consumed my estate, and fallen on my knees at her feet? Equity and Charity may not admit these things but upon just causes against those whom profession of Religion and Nobility of stocke may acquite from suspition. Can any such suspition light upon mee, which have lost a Father and a brother in their Countreyes service? Which of 33 yeeres which I have lived, have been the Queenes servant 13, and have beene seven of them of her Privy Councell? Which have undergone extreme hatred amongst all those as many as doe envy the Queenes safety and true Religion; and for my dutifulnesse towards her, and service against her enemies, am exposed in such sort to revenge, that no place but this kingdome, no time but while she liveth, can yeeld me security? Neither did he alone make these complaints, but very many also here and there, whereof some conspired to bring him out of custody by force and Armes; which notwithstanding he prohibited flatly to be done, and that to maintaine the honour of a good man.
12. But let us returne a while to Irish matters. Scarce was the truce twice one time after another expired, when Tir-Oen, having collected his forces, prepared himselfe againe to warre in hostile manner. Unto him was sent from the Councell of Ireland Sir William Warren Knight, to demand why he brake the truce. To whom he proudly answered that he had not broken the truce, forasmuch as hee had given foureteene dayes warning before hand that he would renew the warre. That there was just cause to renew the warre, for that hee had understood that the Earle of Essex Lord Deputy, in whom he had put all his helps of life and safety, was kept in custody in England; and from thenceforth he would have nothing to doe with the councell of Ireland, who had already dealt fraudulently with him heretofore. That hee could not renew the truce if he would never so faine, for he had sent O-Donel into Connacht, and others of his confederates into other parts. In the meane time rumors wandred abroad every where among the Rebels, not without a head (Tir-Oen haply being the Author) that England would ere long be shaken with new commotions. Lewd men increased daily all over Ireland both in number and courage; the naturall Irish now aspired after their ancient liberty and Nobility; the honest men of the English blood were discouraged when they saw that so great expences of the Queenes were come to nothing, who also complained among themselves that they were long since excluded as strangers from the offices of the Common-wealth. But Tir-Oen with great alacrity made his bragges every where that hee would vindicate the freedome both of Religion and his Countrey; the Rebels in all places he received into his protection, ministred ayds unto them, confirmed such as were doubtfull, and bent himselfe stoutly to subvert the command of the English in Ireland, being fed with hope which the Spaniard had given him by sending him twice one time after another munition for warre with some money; and the Bishop of Rome encouraged him by promises and indulgences, sending him a Phenix Plume, haply because Urban the 3rd had sent in old times a Coronet of Peacocks feathers to John the sonne of Henry the 2nd who as designed Lord of Ireland.
13. In the meane time in England some ill disposed persons extolled the Earle of Essex every where in companies with immoderate praises, as did also some Ministers out of the Pulpit; and the same men or others spread abroad defamatory libels against the Councell, and through their sides wounded the Queene her selfe, as if they neglected the Common-wealth and had no regard of Ireland. Whereupon the next day after the end of Michaelmas Terme, when the Councel according to custome met in the Star Chamber, the Lord Keeper, after he had admonished the Noblemen and Gentlemen to withdraw themselves home out of the City, there to keepe hospitality amongst their neighbours, and the Justices of peace amongst them not onely to punish the breakers of the publicke peace, but also to foresee that the peace were not disturbed, and had gravely reprehended the licentious tongues of malicious detractors, declared what continuall care the Queene tooke to pacifie Ireland, how preposterously the Earle of Essex had prosecuted the Rebels, and upon what unreasonable conditions, and unworthy his Prince, he had contracted with Tir-Oen, who hereupon puffed up with pride, had given out that he would come ere long into England and get him possessions there.
14. The Lord Buckhurst, who was made Lord Treasurer in the Lord Burghleyes roome, inveighing against the writers of libels, declared what a strong and well appointed Army, what great plenty of victuals and munition had beene sent over into Ireland; that money for three moneths pay was sent every moneth, and that the Queene had spent upon this warre within six moneths 300020 pounds, and that this the Earle of Essex could not deny.
15. The Earle of Nottingham Lord Admirall shewed that the Queene had assembled the wisest men and most versed in the affaires of Ireland, and such as were not ignorant of the minds of those of the Countrey, to consult about the Irish rebellion; that the most part of them all were of opinion that Ulster was first to be reduced to obedience; that the Earle of Essex concurred in opinion with them, who had oftentimes iterated that not the young sprigges of rebellion were to bee cut off, but the root to be digged up. Yet he was sory the Earle had done the contrary. And he affirmed that five of the Queenes shippes, with other ships, were sent into Ulster for the use of the warre, and stayed full six moneths in the haven to no purpose.
16. Secretary Cecyl declared first the Queenes singular care in protecting her kingdomes of England and Ireland, by removing the French out of Scotland, defending the doctrine of the Gospell in France and the Low-Countries, by plucking the Netherlands out of the jawes of the Spaniards, and France out of the jawes of the Leaguers, and by defending Ireland from the Forces of the Pope and the Spaniard, and that so successefully that seven yeeres before there was not a Rebell to be seene in Ireland, and the Queene received greater revenues from thence then her father King Henry, or her brother King Edward, or her sister Queene Mary. Then hee reckoned up at large what a strong Army had beene committed to the Earle of Essex, how great an overthrow was received by Harington and Clifford. Then, in answer to those which had muttered that thought an ample authority were granted to the Earle of Essex, yet it was restrained by private letters out of England, and other things were injoyned him contrary to his minde, and the expedition into Munster, neglecting Tir-Oen, was undertaken by advise of the Councell of Ireland. Hee affirmed that neither his authority was diminished, nor any other things injoyned him, then what hee had first appointed to himselfe, and hee called the Earle of Essex himselfe for a witnesse, and produced his letters wherein hee excused his expedition into Munster. Whether hee had undertaken that expedition upon the judgement of the Councell of Ireland or his owne, he left to the all-knowing God, forasmuch as the said Councell testified under their hands that they never perswaded but disapproved it. Whereas some excused his sudden returne out of Ireland, hee acknowledged that the Queene at his earnest request gave him leave to returne when need should bee. But yet afterward, when hee had written by his letters that the state of Ireland was most desperate, shee expressely commanded him upon his alleagiance hee should not returne till he signified fully what hee had performed in Ulster, and to whom hee thought fit the command there should be left. But these things he had neglected, and yet returned contrary to that hee was commanded. Lastly, hee recited the conditions which Tir-Oen now in his prosperity proudly had required, and whereof I have made relation a little before. Hee lamented the adverse successes which amongst forraigners would turne to the dishonour of the English nation, which flourished in Martiall glory, and would somewhat eclipse the Queenes glory, which was in all places most renowmed, and had given such courage to the Rebels that the next day after the Earle of Essex was returned to the English Court, Tir-Oen could not containe himselfe, but brake out into these words, That hee doubted not but ere long hee should see a greater alteration of matters in England then in all ages before had happened; that hee would shew himselfe there openly, and get himselfe a share there. By what conjecture hee could hope for such matters, and understand within a few houres what was done concerning the Earle of Essex, hee professed hee could not conceive. All this spake Cecyl. What others then spake, seeing their speeches were the same in effect, I need not rehearse particularly. Let us now leave the Earle of Essex in custody with the Lord Keeper; who, wholly fixing his cogitations upon God and divine meditation, seemed to neglect all the vanityes of the world, such religious letters hee wrote to his friends full of piety and contempt of worldly matters.
17. In the meane time Andreas of Austrea, sonne by the Lady Welsera to the Cardinall and Archduke Ferdinand the Emperour Maximilians brother, which Andreas governed the Low-Countries whilest Albert of Austria was gone into Spaine to be married, dealt seriously by Charles Lanfranc and Hieronymo Coemano about a Peace to be made betwixt the Queene and Philip the 3rd King of Spaine. Neither did shee shew her selfe averse from peace, so as a sufficient Commission to treat the same might be brought from the Spaniard, and provision made for the safety of the Estates of the confederate Provinces. But to forsake them, or doe any thing that might be dishonourable to her selfe or fraudulent to them, shee answered, shee held it for a foule sinne. Yet by occasion of this mention of peace sundry suspitions entred into the Estates heads, and distrust into the Queenes, for that at the same time it was by assured rumors noysed that an Armado was prepared in Spaine; but it was thought that the Holland Fleet, which now tooke the Isle of Canary with the Castle and spoyled the Isle of Saint Thomas, diverted the same.
18. Yet were not those rumors altogether vaine, for there were some gallies prepared in Spaine by the advice fo Fredericke Spinola of Genua, who being abundantly rich above the estate of a private man, had perswaded the Spaniard when he served in the Low-Countries to send gallies into Flanders. Which, being sent under his conduct ,coasted along by the shore of France, and by the favour of East windes, which in our climate in the Canicular dayes blow for the most part from the Northwest, came into the haven of Scluse in Flanders, not being once espied by the English and Holland shippes which waited for them. For sayling through the narrow seas farre into the North, whether carried by the tide, or through ignorance of those parts, or else by chance, certainely they deceived the English and Hollanders that attended their comming. These gallies at first raised admiration amongst the Hollanders and English, who had found by experience in the yeere 1545, when they were in vaine brought by Francis the first out of the Mediterranean sea against England, that the British Ocean, troubled with frequent stormes, would not brooke such flat-bottomed vessels. But afterward they began to terrifie them, for they were built in that manner by skilfull shipwrights, as those which passed as farre as the Azores not without miracle in the yeare 1593, and they lightly contemned the threats of our Ocean and of taller shippes, And in a calme sea they did great hurt, being rowed with Oares which way soever a man would, whereas contrariwise shippes set forth with great costs, whensoever the winde failed, were unserviceable and lay exposed to shot.
19. At the same time almost, Charles by Gods Grace hereditary Prince of the kingdomes of Sweden, Gothland, and Vandall (for this title hee used) sent unto the Queene one Hill an Englishman to cleere himselfe to the Queene of certaine calumniations, as if he sought innovations by affecting the Crowne of Sweden against his Nephew Sigismond King of Poland, and prayed her not to give credite to detractors, and to assist him with her Counsaile and helpe for the conservation and defence of the sincere Religion founded upon Gods word. Shee heard him publikely, answered him ex tempore, and wished him to keepe sincerely his fidelity to his Nephew, lest he sinned against Justice, Nature, and the rights of propinquity, and should seeme to observe duty more curtiously than faithfully.
20. This yeere Richard Hooker rendered his soule to God, borne in Devonshire, a Countrey fruitfull of Noble wits, brought up at Oxford in Corpus Christi Colledge, a Divine to be imitated for his modesty, temperance, meeknesse, and other vertues, and famous for his manifold commendation for learning, as his bookes of Ecclesiasticall Policy, set forth in English, and most worthy to be turned into Latine, may abundantly testifie.