- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1594
THIS secret conspiracy in Ireland, plotted in Spaine, the Queene hoped might easily be quenched, if shee could first breake the necke of that most open Spanish faction in Scotland. Having therefore her Counsaile asked by the King of Scots concerning a Decree made by the Estates of Scotland for preservation of the Religion and the Realme, shee sent Edward Lord Zouch into Scotland to confirme the Noblemen of the English party, and to require greater severity against those of the Spanish party then that Decree made shew of; forasmuch as it was knowne by most certaine discoveries that they were present at Masses, haboured Jesuites and Priests, had sent blanke papers into Spaine signed with their hands and seales; and that the Spaniard had now a purpose to assaile England by their meanes with a land warre, which by a warre by sea he could not infest.
2. The King answered that he would doe that against those Papists which the Lawes of the Kingdome would warrant. If after admonition they obeyed not, he would prosecute them till he either reduced them to order, or expelled them the Realme, so as the Queene (whom it equally concerned) would joyne her Forces with his. The Lord Zouch stiffly urging him to a prosecution of them, the King asked him whether he were under the command of any other,whether the Queene would prescribe him in what manner hee, being an absolute King, should command his Subjects, protesting that hee would most stoutly defend Religion, and most religiously embrace amity with the Queene. Yet now and then hee complained that Bothwell his most malicious enemy was harboured in England, whereas hee had lately delivered O-Rork an Irish Rebell, into the Queenes hands. And not long after this Bothwell advanced againe the Banners of rebellion against the King, by whose subtill practices let the Scots speake. Certainely, the Ministers of Scotland, complaining daily to the Queene, accused the King, as more favourable to the Papists, and unjust to them. Bothwell, entring into Scotland with foure hundred horsemen of the Borders, came as farre as Leeth without resistance, where in goodly words, as Rebels are wont, hee propounded these things publickly in writing to colour his treachery: Forasmuch as Gods true Religion, the Kings safety and honour, Justice, the Common-wealth, and the wholesome amity betwixt the Kingdomes of Scotland and England, are now brought into extreme perill by meanes of certaine pernicious Councellors which have crept unto the the helme of the Common-wealth, and doe suffer Masse-Priests to wander up and downe in Townes and Villages, and having sent hostages into the Low-Countries doe send for the Spaniards to come over to oppresse Religion and the Common-wealth, and to breake the amity with the English, hee with the Noblemen, Barons, and Burgesses associate with him, have for the preventing of so great mischiefes, determined in the feare of the highest Lord, and due observance to the King, to prosecute these Councellors in hostile manner, and this without all delay, for that the Spaniards are now ready to arrive. Wherefore hee beseecheth the King, exhorteth the Noblemen, and commandeth the Common people that forthwith they joyne their assisting Forces in this so pious, just, and necessary a cause, and prayeth the Magistrates also to assist with their authority. And those which shall ayde the Councellors hee denounceth to be Rebels against the King, and to be punished with severity.
3. To this effect hee wrote to the Synode, which was then held at Dunbarr, and to the English Embassadors, who were said to favour his attempts, and that openly. And the very same day, when hee had heard that the Kings Forces marched under their colours out of Edinburgh, which is scarce three miles off, hee also, dividing this troupes in two, removed out of Leeth. But being in number too weake (for there were but few that joyned with him), knowing well how to avoyd a danger, hee sought by-waies, and once setting upon the Kings Forces on the falling of an hill, as they followed him, hee beat them backe, taking some few prisoners, but not a man was slaine. Then retired hee to Dalkeith in good order, and from thence out of conscience of his rebellion (which ever stingeth), hee betooke him to his wonted lurking places in the Borders of both Kingdomes. But the Queene commanded by Proclamation all over the Borders that no man should harbour him, or ayde him. Which was very acceptable to the King, who most readily offered her all kind offices of love, and convocated the Estates of the Realme concerning the proscribing of the Popish Earles. The Lords, whereof but few came to the Assembly, refused to give their voyces against them, for that although the evidence was cleere concerning the blanke papers, yet nothing could appeare concerning their designe but by presumptions.
4. Neverthelesse, by the voyces of the Ministers and Burgesses, which were farre the greater number, they were proscribed; their Scutcheons of Armes (after the manner of the Scots) torne and throwne out at the windowes of the Town-house, and the proscription publickely proclaimed by an Herald. Then was Argile sent against them, who when in a hot battaile at Genlivet hee had received the overthrow, the King himselfe wrastling with a tedious and difficult journey, marched into those parts over most rough Mountaines, and suffered Huntleys houses at Strathbogy, Slany, and Newton, to be razed, and drove the Earles to those straights that Huntley withdrew himselfe, first to his Aunt the Countesse of Sutherland, and from thence into France, and the rest fled the Land.
5. This mutuall love and amity betwixt the Queene and the King, his immoveable constancy in Religion, which could not bee overcome with bribes, nor intreaties, nor promises, nor subtill practises of the Papists, his strict Lawes made against Jesuites and such kinde of men, the execution of Graham of Fentre, the forwardest of all those that affected the Spanish party, the granting of supreme authority in matters Ecclesiasticall to the King by the Estates, and the Association agains the Papists, all these (I say) did so dash all hope of restoring the Popish Religion in Scotland and England, that some of them in England which most of all favoured his Mothers Title began to cast in minde to substitute some English Papist in the Kingdome of England.
6. When they could not agree upon a meet man of their owne number, they cast their eyes upon the Earle of Essex (who never approved the putting of men to death in the cause of Religion), feigning a title from Thomas of Woodstock, King Edward the third’s sonne, from whom hee derived his Pedigree.
7. But the Fugitives favoured the Infanta of Spaine, although they feared lest the Queene and the Estates would by Act of Parliament prevent it by offering an oath to every one, and they held it sufficient if they could set the King and the Earle of Essex at enmity. And indeed to this purpose there was a booke set forth and dedicated to Essex, under the counterfeit name of Dolman, not without the remarkeable malice of Persons the Jesuit against Dolman a Priest of a quiet spirit (if we may give credite to the Priests), for the Authors of the booke were Parsonsm a most deadly adversary of Dolmans, Cardinall Allen, and Sir Francis Inglefield.
8. Almost all the Kings of England they contumeliously traduce as wrongfull possessors, and all in England of the blood royall as either illegitmate and uncapable of the Crowne; the most certaine right of the King of Scots to the Crowne of England they most unjustly seeke to overthrow, and (which I am ashamed and grieved to speake, forasmuch as the Priests lippes should keepe knowledge, and they should stand having their loynes girt in the truth), doe by forged devices most falsely entitle thereunto the Infanta Isabella the King of Spaines daughter, because shee was a Roman Catholike. To wit, first, because she draweth her descent (as in this booke is set forth) from Constance the daughter of William the Conquerour, King of England, the wife of Alan Fergant, Earle of Britaine, whereas notwithstanding Guilielmus Gemetiscensis, who lived at that time, testifieth in his last booke that she dyed without issue, and together with him doe accord all the writers of British matters with one consent.
9. Secondly, because she draweth her linage from Aelinore the eldest daughter of King Henry the second, married to Alphonsus the ninth King of Castile. But Innocent the 3rd Pope of Rome sheweth in Matthew of Paris pag. 381, that Maud the wife of wife of Henry Leon Duke of Saxony, and mother of the Emperour Otho the fourth, was his eldest daughter, of whom also Robert Abbot of Saint Michaels Mount (who christened her at the Font) writeth that shee was borne in the yeere 1162. Thirdly, because she was descended from Blanch, the eldest daughter of the said Aelenor, which Roderigo Archbishop of Toledo in his ninth book, cap. 5, and one of more credit, Innocent Pope of Rome, both of them flourishing in the same age, do convince of falsity. Fourthly, because she was issued from Beatrice the daugher of Henry 3rd King of England, forgetting in the meane time that shee had two brethren, Edward the first, King of England, and Edmund Earle of Lancaster, from whom (besides the royal family) is propagate a great Generation of Noblemen in England. Fiftly, they challenge a title to the same Infanta by the House of Portugall, as also to the Dukes of Parma and Bragansa, from Philippa the daughter of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, whom they affirme to be his eldest daughter by his first wife Blanch. Whereas Frosard, who lived in the Court at the same time, sheweth, fol. 169 of the second part, that his eldest daughter was Elizabeth married to John Holland, which was afterwards Duke of Excester, from whom a numerous issue of Noblemen is spread abroad all over England. But these and other Genealogicall dreames arising out of the crude vapours of perfidiousnesse, wherewith that booke is over-spread, I have already refuted; which they, unmindfull of their profession, have in contempt of the authority of the Councell of Trent (concerning the avoyding of secular affayres), and in contempt of the Councell of Toledo, and their owne Lawes revived the yeere before at Rome, thrust forth to curry favour with the Spaniard, to delude men, to make way for tumults and seditions, and to set up ladders for ambitious men to climbe unto their downefalles, and violating the truth have covered them under the cloake of Religion. Yea, so farre they proceeded that they compelled the English Priests in the Spanish Seminaries (to speake it upon their owne credite) to subscribe to this forged title of the Infanta. Yet all this, not long after, when King James was by the generall suffrage of all men proclaimed King of England, this Parsons excused by letters to a friend of his, as proceedinag not from a mind to doe King James hurt, but out of an earnest desire to draw him to the Romish Religion, and he hoped he should bee excused, for that those injuries did not prejudice the Kings title, because forsooth this his lewdnesse failed of successe. But whilest these fugitives are feigning a false heire to Spaine, God, who laughed at their devises, raysed up a sonne in Scotland to King James the undoubted heire of the Crowne of England, for the 19th of February was borne Henry Prince of Scotland, the love and delight of Britaine, to whome Queene Elizabeth was Godmother by an honourable Embassie sent by Robert Earle of Sussex.
10. As these learned English fugitives studied to advance by writing the Infanta of Spaine to the Scepter of England, so others of their number secretly attempted the same by the sword, sending privily certaine murderers to kill Queene Elizabeth, and the Spaniards by poyson. The Spaniards, suspecting the fidelty of the English in matters of so great weight, used the helpe of Roderigo Lopez of the Jewish sect, the Queenes Physician for her houshold, and of Stepanus Perreira and Edward Loisie, Portugalls (for many Portugalls in those dayes crept into England as retainers to the exiled Don Antonio), who by meanes of letters intercepted being apprehended, were about the end of February arraigned in Guild-hall at London, and charged by their owne confessions to have conspired to make away the Queene by poyson. Lopez, having beene for a long time a man of noted fidelity, was not once suspected (save that out-landish Phisicians may by bribes and corruption be easily made poysoners and traytors). He confessed that he was drawne by Andrada a Portugall to employ his best and secret service for the King of Spaine; that he had received from his most inward Councellour, Christophoro Moro, a rich Jewell; that he had divers times advertised the Spaniard of such things as he could learne; that at length upon a contract for 50000 Dukets hee had promised to poyson the Queene; and that this he signified to Count de Fuentez, and Ibara the Kings Secretary in the Netherlands.
11. Stephanus Ferreira confessed that Count de Fuentez and Ibara had signified unto him both by letters and word of mouth that there was a plot layd to take way the Queenes life by poyson; that hee wrote letters by Lopez his dictating wherein he promised the same, conditionally that 50000 Duckets should be payed unto him; also that Emanuel Loisie was secretly sent unto him by Fuentez and Ibara, to excite Lopez to dispatch the matter speedily.
12. Emanuel confessed that Count Fuentez and Ibara, when he had given them his faith to keepe close their counsailes, shewed him a letter which Andrada had written in Lopez his name about making away the Queene; and that he himselfe was likewise sent by Fuentez to deale with Ferreira and Lopes for hastening the Queenes death, and to promise to Lopez himselfe money, and honours to his children.
13. At the Barre, Lopez spake not much, but cried out that Ferreira and Emanuel were wholly composed of faund and lying; that he intended no hurt against the Queene, but hated the gifts of a Tyrant; that he had given that Jewell to the Queene which was sent him from the Spaniard; and that he had no other meaning but to decieve the Spaniard and wipe him of his money.
14. The rest spake nothing for themselves, many times accusing Lopez. They were all of them condemned, and after three moneths put to death at Tiburne, Lopez affirming that he had loved the Queene as hee loved Jesus Christ, which from a man of the Jewish profession was heard not without laughter. The next day after that these were condemned, was also Patric Cullen condemned, an Irish Master of Fence, which had beene laden with promises by the fugitives in the Low-Countries, and sent privily with money for his charges to kill the Queene. Who confessing in a manner his crime, and the same being proved against him by evidence, was executed when he was even ready to dye of languishing sicknesse. Edmund Yorke also, and Richard Williams were apprehended, being suborned by Ibara and those fugitives to kill the Queene; as also other incendiaries, sent to fire the Navy with bals of wild-fire. Thus the English fugitives, as well Priests as other lewd persons, out of an impious opinion deeply setled in their minds that Princes excommunicate are to be rooted out; and the Spaniards Ministers out of hatred, did by all meanes, and more sharpely then ever before, bend themselves to the destruction of the Queene. But shee remaining undaunted, with a manly spirit and provident caution (reposing her trust in God), contemned these treacheries, and often called to mind that of the Kingly Psalmist, Thou art my God; my times are in thy hands. Yet did she advertise Ernest Archduke of Austria, Governor of the Belgick Provinces for the Spaniard, of these treacheries plotted by Ibara and other Spanish Ministers and English fugitives against her life, and prayed him to signifie the same to the Spaniard, to the end hee might wipe away from himselfe the aspersion of the same crime by punishing his Officers and Ministers, and deliver into her hands the English Architects of so great impiety, namely, Hugh Owen, Thomas Throgmorton, Holt the Jesuite, Giffart and Worthington, professors of Divinity, etc., lest by cherishing such wicked persons he might wrong his royall reputation and honour amongst all good men. And lest the Spaniard should demand Antonio Perez his late Secretary, who was fled for tumults which hee had raised in Arragon and was now resident in England, she protested that he was sent into England by the French King to his Embassadour without her knowledge, and she neither did nor would relieve him with pension or protections. Certainely she detested the man, who had, contrary to his Allegiance, published his Kings secrets, and Burgley, Lord Treasurer, scarce vouchsafed him a conference. But Essex entertained him in his house, and supplied him largely with money, using him as his councellor, yea, as an Oracle, as one much versed in the secrets of the Spanish Court, and a most subtill Politician; who notwithstanding (as such kinde of men usually are) was so tossed with the mockeries of Fortune that hee called himselfe Fortunes Monster, and set the same for a Symbole on his picture.
15. Now began that most violent fury of the League to be allayed, which had harried France about the space of eight yeeres. For when the King (who had happily weakened the Leaguers by Armes, and by Arts disjoyned them, embracing the Romish Religion the last yeere) was in the beginning of this yeere solemnely inaugurate, and had granted a Truce, some of the Noblemen being wonne by large promises returned by strifes to his obedience, others upon condition that hee would grant unto them to hold the governments which they had gotten, in such sort as Hugh Capet in times past, to winne unto him the hearts of the Noblemen, had granted unto them the hereditary possession of Governments. Hereupon, some of the rebellious Cities were rendered, other suddenly surprised, yea, even Paris it selfe, inviting the King secretly into the City, was yeelded unto him with festivall joy of the Citizens, and the Spaniards (having their hopes of the French Scepter, and marriage of the Infanta with the Duke of Guise, quite dashed through the emulation of the Duke de Mayon against his Nephew), were dismissed from thence with bagge and baggage, not without taunts and scoffes of the French, who repented them of that they had done. But whereas those Spaniards which were called into Britaine by the Duke du Mercure stood out obstinately, and strengthened the maritime places with most strong Garisons to keepe their possession, Norris, who had beene called home out of Britaine to informe the Queene in person of the British warre, was remitted againe into Britaine with charge to take in the Spaniards Fort at Crodon neere the Haven of Brest, and arrived at Pimpoole with new forces the first of September. At which time Marshalle D’Aumont and Sir Thomas Baskervill, who had the command of the English in the absence of Norris, besieged Morlaix, and upon the comming of Norris tooke it by composition. And though by contract with the French Embassadors in England it had beene agreed that if it were taken in, it should be delivered to the English for a place of retreit, yet D’Aumont to prevent it added amongst the Articles of surrender, that no man but a Roman-Catholike should be received into the Towne. Then Quimpercorentin being taken by the Marshall and Sir Henry Norris, the French and English approched the first of November to that Fort of the Spaniards at Crodon, where Sir Martin Fourbisher with tenne English shippes of warre rode at anchor expecting their comming. This Fort is compassed on two parts with water, to land-ward there stand aloft two large Forts, betweene which there runnethe a wall 37 foot wide, within that a thicke mount; the Forts are defended on the side with the rockes, wherein Ordnance are planted. The English and French having drawne certaine battering Peeces out of the shippes, cast up mounts and draw a Trench on that side that the Fort looke to land-ward. The Spaniards, sallying forth to impeach the workes, were beaten backe. But Sir Antony Wingfield, Sargeant Major of the English, a famous old souldier, when hee had made his will the day before, was slaine with the shot of a Peece of Ordnance. The 23rd day of the month, with 700 shot of the Ordnance a small breach was made, and the counterscarpe throwne downe, which Lister an Englishman seized on with his men. But when the forward young men with their fiery spririts pressed in farther, and the enemy made most stout resistance, many were slaine, with Bruder, Jackson, Barker, Capaines of knowne valour, many hurt, and many dangerously scorched with Gun-powder. Some taxed Norris, as if hee being prodigall of bloud, thrust his men rashly into dangers. Certainly, the Queene out of her inbred pitty commanded him by letters to have more care of the safety of his men then of his honour, and not expose his men in this auxiliarly warre to certaine perlis; saying that the bloud of man is not to be used prodigally, that the desperate boldnesse of warlike men for glory is rather to be restrained than precipitated into hazard. So should men finde lesse lacke of wisdome in him, they would not condemne him of unmercifulnesse, and shee should the more commend his love to her people. But the letter came too late. During the heat of this siege, D’Aumont and Norris thought good to undermine the East Bulwarke on that side where the French lay, and to blow it up; which tooke effect, and opened a great breach. Now they invade the Fort on all sides. Latham, Smith, and others, with the English assaulted the West Bullwarke, whilest the French set upon the East Bullwarke, and the rest of the wall betwixt both on the South, from noone till foure of the clocke. At the length the English making themselves masters of the West worke, and Thomas de Parades Commander of the Spaniards being slaine, entred the Fort, plucked downe the Flags, and opened an entrace for the rest, who put the Garison souldiers, being about the number of 400, to the sword, and layed the Fort levell with the ground the same day that Don John d’Aquila was ready to bring them ayde. Neither was this victory gotten by the English without bloud, very many valiant souldiers being slaine, and Sir Martin Fourbisher hurt with a small shot in the hip; who when he had brought backe the Fleet to Plimmouth, died. A most valourous man, and one that is to reckoned amongst the famousest men of our age for councell and glory gotten at Sea, as by the things I have before spoken plainly appearath.
16. Not long after, it being knowne that certaine Spanish Leaders were come into Ireland to raise a rebellion, Norris was called home againe out of Britaine. The shippes which should transport him, when they arrived at Morlaix, were prohibited to enter the Haven, insomuch as they were constrained in a sharpe could weather to put to sea againe, and to goe to Rusco an unsafe rode. Which the Queene tooke so much the more hardly at D’Aumonts hands because hee was beholden to the English for the taking of Morlaix. And not onely in France, but also in the most remote Country of America, did the English at this time make warre upon the Spanish. For Richard Hawkins, sonne of the most famous Navigator Sir John Hawkins, having received a Commission under the Great Seale of England to infest the Spaniards in those parts, set sayle the last yeere with three shippes and 200 Saylers. Hee first touched at the Isle of Saint Anne, where whilest he staied three months to refresh his sicke men, the least of his shippes by chance tooke fire and was burnt. Thne over against the River of Plate hee tooke a Portugall ship; and the report of his comming being brought to Peru, the Viceroy prepared a Fleet to intercept him. Then by meanes of a foule storme another of his shippes returned to England, for which the Captaine escaped not unpunished.
17. Hee being left alone, and driven farre from the shore to the latitude of 50 degrees, fell upon a fruitfull land, woody, and full of good harbours, by which hee coasted from West to North the length of 60 leagues, till by a contrary winde being driven backe, hee entred into the straight of Magellan a little before the end of January this yeere; which he found to be nothing else but a Sea ful of Ilands, in which hee came to the 56th degree of latitude. After hee had wandered six weekes amongst these Ilands and uncertaine tides, not without many and great dangers, hee got out into an open sea, and was the sixt man according to the Spaniards reckoning that had the glory of passing this straight. And now having sailed along the coast of Chili in the South sea, he seized upon five ships laden with Merchandize at Villa-parissa, one with the Master he carried away, the rest he set at liberty for 2000 Duckets, whereas they were esteemed at more than 20000. Afterwards he made haste towards Arica, where Bertrand di Castro being sent forth by the Viceroy with eight ships, first set upon him to his owne losse, his powder and shot failing him; and againe, being better furnished with all provision, he set upon him the second time in the Bay of Attacame, but with no better successe; for they fought hotly hand to hand, many being slaine on both sides, insomuch as the Spaniards thought it the safer course to play upon them with their Ordnance afarre off, and shoot them through. Which when they had done three whole dayes together without easing, Bertrand sent his Glove, and offered Hawkins and the rest their liberty, in the Kings name, if they would yeeld themselves. Which conditio, when hee and almost all the rest had accepted, being sore hurt, and by long resistance growne too weake to hold out, Bertrand used them courteously. But there arose a question whether faith were to be kept with them, whether Bertrand which was not a Generall delegated immediately from the King, but mediately by the Viceroy, could give faith in the Kings name to Hawkins, who had exhibited a Commission received immediately from his Queene. At length, most agreed in this opinion that faith given in the Kings name was to be kept, forasmuch as hee was not a Pirat, but a lawfull enemy; neither could the Spaniard have other military lawes in the South sea then such as are consonant to others else-where.
18. Nevertheless, Hawkins was sent into Spain, and there kept in prison for certaine yeeres, Betrand, to his great commendation for his honesty, solliciting that the faith which hee had given might be kept, but not prevailing. But it seemed good to the Spaniard to use this severity for a terrour, lest others should enter into the South sea, untill the Condi di Miranda President of the Councell pronounced that hee was to be discharged, for that in matters of warre promises deliberately made by the Kings Captaines under condition are to be kept; otherwise no man would ever yeeld himselfe.
19. But James Lancaster fought with the Spaniards in another part of America with better successe, being sent forth with three shippes and a long Pinnace, by certaine Merchants of London, upon whose goods the Spaniards had laied hands. For he tooke 39 shippes of the Spaniards, and taking into his company Venour an Englishman, and certaine Netherlanders and Frenchmen roving for booty in that Sea, hee resolved to make an attempt upon Fernambuc in Brasil, where had understood that great wealth was unladen out of a wracked Caraque of East India.
20. But when hee saw the enemy standing thicke on the shore, he tooke the choicest men of the English and put them into Boats, and caused them to be rowed with such violence to the shore that they were split. Which being stoutly undertaken, succeeded happily. For through their valour the enemy being driven to the higher Towne, hee became Master of the base Towne with the haven, and defended it full 30 dayes against sundry subtill stratagems and assaults, refusing all parley, disappointed their fire-workes against his shippes, and laded about 15 shippes with the goods of the said Caraque, as also with sugar, which is here made in great plenty of the most sweet moysture of Canes, with Brasil woodd so called of this place, and in request for dying of cloathes, and gossipine or cotton, and returned home safe.
21. Whether this that followeth be worthy the remembering I know not, unlesse it be for an instruction to ambitious youth. Sir Nicholas Clifford, and Sir Anthony Shirley, young English Knights, had served so valiantly in the wars in France under the King that he chose them into the Order of Saint Michael, they taking the oath according to forme. With the ornaments whereof, when they returned and shewed themselves openly in the City and Court, the Queene tooke displeasure that they, as it were, subjects to another, had without acquainting her taken an oath and received the Order of another King, and cast them in prison. Yet out of her clemency would shee not have them proceeded against by Law, in regard of the ignorance of their young yeeres, and her singular kindnesse to the French King, who bestowed so great an honour on them. But shee commanded them to make a resignation and send backe their ornaments, and procure their names to bee blotted out of the Memorialls of that Order. Which when the French King heard, it is reported he said merrily, I could wish the Queene would doe me the like favour, and choose some ambitious Frenchmen which she shall next see in England, into the Order of King Arthurs round table. For that order so much talked of in old fables, was long agone growne out of use; as of late times also that of Saint Michael in France hath through confusion of the times growne so base that a Nobleman of France said, That the Chaine of Saint Michael was sometimes a badge of Noblemen onely, but now it was a Collar for all animals. But I shall have occasion to speake else-where of honour received from forreiners.
22. At Rome dyed about this same time William Allen, commonly called Cardinall of England, of whom I have made mention sometimes before. He was borne in the County of Lancaster of honest parentage and allyed by kindred to some Noble families. Brought up he was at Oxford in Oriell Colledge, where in Queene Maries daies he was a Proctor of the University, and afterward a Canon in the Church of Yorke. As soone as Religion changed in England he departed the land, and at Douay in Flanders (where an University was begune in the yeere 1562) professed Divinity, and had a Canonship given him in the Church of Cambray. He procured a Seminary to be instituted at Douay for the English, as also another at Rheimes, where also he received a Canonship; a third at Rome, and two others in Spaine, for the conservation of the Romish Religion in England; for the zeale whereof, he cast off both his love to his Countrey and his duty to his Prince, and stirred up the Spaniard and the Bishop of Rome to conquer England. And in that respect, he put himselfe into dangerous counsailes and designes, after that Sixtus Quintus, Bishop of Rome, had honoured him with the title of Cardinall of Saint Martins in the Mounts, and the Spaniard with an Abby in the Kingdome of Naples, and had nominated him to the Archbishopricke of Machilin. For when that huge Armado threatened England, he brought into the Low-Countries a Bull of Excommunication against the Queene, and caused it to be printed in English; and withall he wrote an Admonition to the Englis, to adhere to the Bishop of Rome and the Spaniard. But being disappointed of his hope, he returned to Rome, where waxing weary of the dissentions and hatreds of the English fugitives, as well Students as Gentlemen amongst themselves, he expired in the 63rd yeere of his age, and was buried in the English Church of the Holy Trinity. In Latin hee wrote of the Eucharist, in English an Apology for the Seminaries, another for the English Catholikes, a third for Sir William Stanley who betrayed Deventre to the Spaniaards. Hee wrote also the Admonition aforesaid, and a booke of Purgatory; and other workes of his I have not seene.
23. At his time also rendered his soule to God John Piers Archbishop of Yorke, a great Divine, and a modest, who was long time the Queenes Almoner. To whom succeeded Matthew Hutton, being translated thither from the Bishopricke of Durresme. [Durham].
24. About the beginning of this yeere, Ferdinand Stanley Earle of Darby, of whom I have spoken in the last yeere, expired in the flowre of his youth, not without suspition of poyson, being tormented with cruell paynes by frequent vomitings of a darke colour like rusty yron. There was found in his chamber an Image of waxe, the belly pierced thorow with haires of the same colour that his were, put there (as the wiser sort have judged) to remove the suspition of poyson. The matter vomited up stayned the silver Basons in such sort that by no art they could be possibly be brought againe to their former brightnesse; and his dead body, though rolled in sear-clothe, and wrapped in lead, yet ranne with such corrupt and most stinking humours that no man could in a long time come neere his place of buriall. No small suspicion lighted upon the Gentleman of his horse, who, as soone as the Earle tooke his bed, tooke his best horse and fled. His brother William succeeded him in the honour of the Earledome of Darby; betwixt whom and the three daughters of the Lord Ferdinand, when there grew a suite for the dominion of the Ile of Manne, the Queene knowing that the English fugitives and the Spaniards cast their eyes upon that Ile, committed the government thereof to Sir Thomas Gerard Knight, for his knowne fidelity and in respect of his neighbourhood unto it, untill it should bee decided. In the meane time, the Queenes Councell learned in the Lawes, who are most subtill and quick sighted, inculcated out of quirks and high points of Law that the right of that Iland belonged to the Queene, and that the Stanleys and Earles of Darby had possessed it wrongfully by the space of 300 yeeres past; for that (to fetch the matter a little higher) Henry the 4th as soone as hee had seized on the Crowne, having proscribed William Scrope, Lord of the Ile of Manne, gave the same to Henry Percy Earle of Northumberland. This Henry the sixth yeere after tooke up the banner of rebellion. Hereupon the same King, the next yeere following, granted it by Letters Patents to John Stanley for life, when the said Earle of Northumberland was not then proscribed by authority of Parliament, nor his lands adjudged to the King. After a moneth an agreement was made betweene the King and Stanley that those former Letters Patents for life, and certaine other Letters Patents granted by the King, should be surrendered and cancelled, and the Iland should be grainted againe to Stanley and his heires, in these words: Wee, for that the said John Stanley hath restored unto us the same Letters Patents in our Chancery to be cancelled, have granted unto the aforesaid John Stanley the Iland aforesaid, etc. Upon these words, and observation of the times that those former Letters Patents were granted for life before such time as the Earle of Northumberland was proscribed, the Lawyers pronounced that the King could not by Law make any such grant for life, because it was not yet adjudged unto him, and consequently that the latter Letters Patents, grounded upon the surrender of the former, were nothing worth; but that the King was deceived by a false suggestion, and therefore that the grant was voyd. But the Queene gave over this title, and an agreement was made betweene the Uncle and his Neeces.
25. Gregory Fienes or Fenis, the last Lord Dacre of this Sir-name, and therefore to be mentioned, exchanged also life for death. He, being a man of a cracked braine, was Great-Grandsonne of Richerd Fienes of the ancient family of the Earles of Bononia; to whom Henry the sixt and Edward the fourth, Kings of England, adjudged the title of Lord Dacre, for that he had married the heire female of Thomas Lord Dacre. He was the sonne of Thomas Lord Dacre, which perishedin the reigne of Henry the eighth, being scarce 24 yeeres old. For whereas there was a man-slaughter committed by his houshold servants that were ready to goe forth with him on hunting (at which fact notwithstanding he himselfe was not present), he was called in question and perswaded by the Courtiers which cunningly gaped after his inheritance, that he could not save his owne life and his peoples, unlesse hee confessed the crime and submitted himselfe to the Kings mercy. Which when he had ignorantly and unadvisedly done, hee was soone after condemned, and the next day save one, hanged. Yet those circumventing Courtiers missed of their hope, for the inheritance came by Law to his sister Margaret, who was married to Sampson Lennard; and the title of the Barony of Dacre was granted to the same Margaret, and confirmed to her sonne Lord Henry Lennard.
26. And I may not omit these that follow, which within the course of this yeeree fulfilled their mortality. William Lord Evers, leaving Ralph his sonne and heire by Margery Dimmocke. Giles Lord Chandos, to whom decesasing without heires male succeded in the dignity William his brother. And William Blount Lord Montjoy, having a feeble and decayed body through the intemperance of his youth; to whonmin like manner succeded his brother Charles, Governour of Portsmouth.
27.Sir William Fitz-Williams Lord Deputy of Ireland being called home, there was substituted in his roome in the moneth of August Sir William Russell, the youngest sonne of Francis Earle of Bedford, after that Henry Duke and Edward Herbert, who were sent with victuals and men to relieve the Garison in Inis-Killyn besieged by Mac-Guire, were put to flight by the rebels with no small overthrow. As soone as he had received the sword of authority, Tir-Oen ,having received letters of protection, came unto him beyond all mens expectation, and falling on his knees, most humbled, craved pardon in writing for that he had not come unto the former Lord Deputy, being commanded. He excused it for that his adversaries had layd a plot for his life. He lamented that through their informations he had lost the Queenes favour, whom hee acknowledged to have beene most bountifull unto him, and that as shee had raised him to highest honor, so she might most easily throw him downe, and cast him out of Ireland. He prayed that the equity of his cause might be weighed in an equall ballance, and made large promises that whatsoever should be commanded him, he would most willingly performe in raising the siege of Inis-Kellyn, and expelling the Iland-Scots. He protested before God and man that though by the conduct of Nature he had saved his life against his adversaries, yet would hee never take armes against the Queenes Majesty. Lastly, he most humbly besought the Lord Deputy and the Councell of Ireland that they would earnestly mediate with the Queene for receiving him againe into her former favour. There was present Sir Henry Bagnall Marshall of the Irish Army, who put up Articles against him, accusing him that hee had privily sent Mac-Guyre with Gauran the Primate, of whom I have spoken before, into Connacht; that he had communicated secret counsailes with Mac-Guire, O-Donel, and the other confederate rebels; that hee had ayded them by Cormac Mac-Baron his brother and Con his base sonne in wasting of Monaghan, and besieging of Inis-Dellin, and had by threats withdrawne the Captaines of Kilulto and Kilwarny from their Alleagiance to their Prince. All these things he stiffly denied, and as a man safe under the guard of a good conscience hee professed that he would renounce his letters of protection, if these things could be proved.
28. Hereupon it was seriously questioned amongst the Councell whether he should be detained to make answere. The Lord Deputies opinion was that he should be detained; the rest, either in a vaine feare lest they might seeme to violate the priviledge of his protection, or out of favour to him, thought he was to bee dismissed, and the matter to be putt off to another time; to whom as being the greater number, and of more experience in the Irish affaires, the Lord Deputy unwillingly yielded. Hee was therefore dismissed, his accusers and the witnesses which were present not being heard. Which much troubled the Queene, forasmuch as his lewd designes and facts were most cleere and apparent to all men, and the Queene her selfe had forewarned that hee should be detained untill hee should purge himselfe of the crimes objected against him. Yet he gave singular hope to the Councell both of Ireland and England of his faithfull obedience, promising readily almost whatsoever they propounded, namely, that hee would keepe his brother Cormac and his from aiding Mac-Guire and the Rebels; that he would doe his best to expell the Iland Scots of Ireland; that hee would perswade O-Donel to doe the like; that in the absence of the Lord Deputy hee would defend the Borders with his owne troupe of horse; that hee would perform the Canon or Composition for provision of victuals; that he would erect a prison at Dunganon; that hee would admit the Sheriefe and Justices of the Country of Tir-Oen upon certaine conditions; and that hee would become surety that Turlogh Mac-Henry should not admit the Iland-Scots into Ireland.
29. The Lord Deputy, marching shortly after to raise the siege at Inis-Kellin, put the Rebels to flight, relieved the Towne, and strengthened the Garison. Then did hee sharply pursue Feagh Mac-Hugh, who was up in rebellion in Leinster, and making as if hee went on hunting, hee missed narrowly but hee had taken him. For hee drave him out of his house at Ballencure into the steepe Vallies which they call Glinnes; there hee placed a garison, and his bands of men being sent forth, searched after him so narrowly through all waies and corners that almost no day passed wherein, according to the manner of the countr,y they sent not in some of the Rebels heads, and tooke Feaghs wife Rhise, a woman of a manly courage above that of women, who for a terrour was adjudged to be burnt, but by the Queenes mercy her life was spared. In another part Sir Henry Bagnall, being sent by the Lord Deputy, delivered the Castle of Monaghan from the danger of a siege, which Mac-Guire and Mac-Mahon had straightly layed unto it, and put a new Garison into it. But the Lord Deputy having dismissed Tir-Oen, could by no meanes perswade him to returne unto him, though hee oftentimes sent for him very kindely; who first making excuse as if hee stood in feare of the Marshall, shortly after, as if hee had forgotten his obedience, began to speake bigly of a truce and peace, which things Princes doe hardly brooke to heare from their subjects; insomuch as men marvailed to see how much hee was changed from the man hee was, who a little before had submitted himselfe with so great dejection.