Early Modern England

История Англии Раннего Нового времени

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  1. IN the moneth of January the Estates of the Realme assembled at Westminster and made wholesome Lawes for the reliefe of the poore, for matter of the Navy, for maintenance and increase of tillage, for punishing of vagabonds, forgers of evidences, clippers, washers, rounders, and filers of money, phantasticall Prophecies, Conjurers or Sorcerers, buggerers, and perjurers, for translating the Bible and divine Service into the Welsh tongue; and also for preservation of the Queenes Majestie and the Realme, and avoyding of inconveniences and dishonours which have fallen by meanes of the usurped authority of the Bishop of Rome. And to the end to restraine the boldnes of those which maintained the same, they enacted that they should be guilty of high Treason which by writing, word, or deed, should thrice maintaine the authority of any forraine Prince, Prelate, or State, in spirituall matters in England or other the Queenes Dominions, and which should refuse the oath of the Queenes Supremacy in causes spirtuall or over persons Ecclesiasticall, the same being tendered unto them twice. Yet so as neither they should be attainted in blood, nor their goods and lands confiscate, nor that this oath should be exacted of any Baron of the Realme, or any of most eminent dignity (for that the Qeene doubted not of their faithfull obedience), nor of any man also but which was, had beene, or should beare Ecclesiasticall Orders, or then bare, had borne, or should beare Ecclesiasticall function, or being warned, should not observe the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church of England, or should deprave the same by publicke word or deed, or should celebrate or heare Masse, etc. as is to be seen in the Statute. Moreover the Estates congratulating the happinesse of the times graunted unto the Queene for Religion reformed, peace restored, England with Scotland freed from the forreine enemy, money refined, the Navy renewed, warlike munition by sea and land provided, and for the laudable enterprize in France for the securing of England, and of the young King of France, and the recovering of Calice [Calais], they graunted (I say) the Eccliasticall men one subsity, and the Laity another, with two Fifteenes and Tenths. A Fifteen and a Tenth (that I may note it for forrainers sakes) is a certain taxation upon every City, Borrough, and Towne, not upon every particular man, but in generall, in respect of the fifteenth part of the wealth of the places. A Subsidy we call that which is imposed upon every man, being cessed by the powle [assessed by the poll], man by man, according to the valuation of their goods and lands. But neither is this nor the other taxation imposed, but by consent of the Estates in Parliament.
  2. In the meane time the Prince of Condey, while he poasted to the English auxiliary Forces in Normandy, was intercepted in that memorable battel of Dreux, and taken prisoner by the Duke of Guise; and together amongs others, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, who was present at the battel, being before voluntarily taken prisoner by the Protestants, that he might impart certain secret Counsels with him. But within a while after he was set at liberty, and payed the money agreed upon to Coligny, who with the auxiliary Companies marched to the Castle of Caen, which he then besieged, and with their helpe the sooner forced Caen, Baieux, Faleise, and the Church of Saint Lo to surrender.
  3. Whilest these things are done in France, Queene Elizabeth ,by Chaloner her Ambassadour in Spaine, signified to the King that shee had sent over an Army into France to the end to prevent the Guises in time, who insulted against her and plotted her destruction, before they should transferre the warre into England, and to hold New-haven being delivered into her hands untill she was satisfied for Calice. He answered, if Calise were all that were sought, he for his part wished it with his heart. But if the warre were undertaken for Religion, hee could not neglect the ancient Religion. As for the Guises, how weake ones (saith he) are they, that the most potent Queene of England should feare them, who have no affinity with the French as in former times? In England also the Bishop of Aquila the Spanish Ambassadour many times told the Queene that in this warre the Spaniard neither would nor could forsake his brother the French King. To whom she made no other answer but that English Proverbe, Every man must defend his owne house, and I mine. Neither was the Spaniard ignorant that the Queene at the same time earnestly sollicited the Protestants of Germany by Henry Knolles and Christopher Monts to relieve Condey, and defend the common cause of Religion. Whereat he also taking displeasure, sought causes secretly against her even in respect to Religion.
  4. In the meane time, the French Hostages which were sent into England for five hundred thousand Crownes for restoring of Calice, when they saw all things to tend to warre, made preparation for their flying away, but when they were ready to take shipping they were brought back againe, together with John Ribald that famous Pilot, who was come secretly into England to convey them away. A peace in the meane while was agreed upon in France, betweene the King and Condey (who was fed with hope of the Lieutenancy generall in France, and of marriage with the Queene of Scots) and the Protestants, without any regard had to the Queene of England. Who all with one voyce protested that unlesse the English would depart from New-haven, the Covenant in the Treaty of the Castle of Cambray for restoring of Calice should be voyde, and by publicke Proclamation liberty was given all Frenchmen to invade all Englishmen, take, and rob them, as long as they should hold New-haven. The same liberty the Queene of England likewise graunted to the English, that they might hold all Frenchmen (except those that dwelt in London) for enemies, as long as they should detaine Calice. Hereupon incredible it is with how great a Fleet the English invaded the seas, and shut up the French, yea, and the Spaniards also, insomuch as the Queene was faine to excuse their piraticall insolency against the Spaniards by her Ambassadour, and to restraine them by Proclamation.
  5. The Earle of Warwick, Governour of New-haven, when he perceived the wavering fidelity of the Townesmen being French, who now upon a slight rumour of peace held secret counsels both amongst themselves and with the Rhinegrave (who lay with a power of men in the Country adjoyning) for betraying the Towne and shutting out the English, he removed out of the Towne all the French, as well Protestants as Papists without difference, and layed hands on their ships. Which the French tooke very hardly, complaining that the English intended not so much the protection of the afflicted Frenchmen as the possession of the place, and taxed them as injurious to strangers. Certainely, nothing in old time more alienated the Normans, Acquitanians, Poictons, and the rest under the English Jurisdiction in France, than that they held them in no other degree then forreiners. And now the French provide all things most diligently for the siege of the Towne, and withall the King and Conde earnestly sollicite in England by Briquemot and D’Aluy for the rendering of New-haven; neither did the Queen refuse it upon these conditions: If the King of Spain would become surety for the restoring of Calice within the time prefixed; if the Treaty at the Castle of Cambray might be confirmed by the oaths of the King, the Queene mother, and the Princes of the blood, and approved in every Parliament of France, and Hostages of the chiefe Nobility delivered.
  6. In the meane time the pestilence raged very sore at New-haven among the Garrison Soldiers; and of the Souldiers sent thither to relieve them, two hundred perished by ship-wracke, with their Leader Sir Thomas Finch Knight, and two brethren of the Lord Wentworths. Whereby when there was small hope of holding the Towne, Sir Thomas Smith the Ordinary Ambassadour in France was commanded to propound the restoring of it for Calice, and that the matter should be compounded by the arbitrement even of the Spaniard who had marryed the French Kings sister. But they utterly refused saying that the French King acknowledged no superiour, nor would referre his matters to the arbitrement of any Prince. And Sir Nicholas Throckmorton they laid hold on, being sent with charge and Instructions for these matters, suspecting that he, being a man skilfull in stirring up hurly-burlyes, was returned to raise commotions, charging him that he was come into France without publicke warrantise, whereas notwithstanding he had both Letters of credence and other Letters also from the French Ambassadour in England. Neither would they once heare him, being certainely perswaded that New-haven would shortly be wonne, by reason of the raging pestilence. Thither now was come the Constable Monmorency with the chiefe of the Nobility, and soone after Condey himselfe witht he flowre of the Protestants. To the English that greatly admired the change of the French Protestants mindes, it was answered, that a peace being now concluded, they must fight with joynt forces not for Religion, but for their Country. Montmorency sent a Trumpet to Warwick, to summon him to yeeld up the Towne; who sent him back with Sir Hugh Powlett, who told him that the English were ready to undergoe all extremities, rather than yeeld up the place without the Queenes commandement. So the workes being raised, and the battery continued many dayes, breaches made, the Conduits stopped, and the water drawne out of the ditch, which lay higher then the Sea, the French urge the assault, the English with stout confidence resist them with all their might, more men perishing by force of the pestilence then by the sword of the enemy.
  7. These things when Queene Elizabeth understood, lamenting with teares the most afflicted estate of her people, lest she might seeme to expose her most stout men any longer to the pestilence and sword, having by a publicke writing commended the valour of her Leaders and Souldiers, shee commanded Warwick to agree with the French about a surrender upon reasonable conditions; who sent Powlett, Sir Maurice Dennis Treasurer of the Garrison, Horsey, and Pelham to Montmorency about yeelding up the Towne, and soone after they agreed upon these conditions, That the Towne with all the munitions, ships and goods which belonged to the French King and his subjects, should bee rendered up; that the greater Towre of the Towne should forthwith be delivered into the hands of Montmorency; that the prisoners taken on both sides should be delivered without ransome; and that the English, with all things that belonged to the Queene and them, should freely depart within sixe dayes, if the wind served. The Hostages delivered were Sir Olivar Manours, the Earl of Rutlands brother, Leighton, Pelham, and Horsey. The last that stayed was Colonell Edward Randolph, who in piety never sufficiently commended spared not to carry the poore Souldiers sicke and labouring of the plague upon his shoulders into the ships. Thus New-haven, having beene more grievously assailed by the pestilence then by the enemy, was left to the French, after that the English had held it eleven moneths. In which time, besides common Souldiers, there were taken away by the plague Somerset, John Zouch, Albery Darcy, Drury, Entwessell, Ormesby, Vaghan, Croker, Cockson, Prowd, Saul, Kemis, brave Commanders. There were slaine two Tremayns brothers, Sanders, Bromfield the Master Gunner, Robinson Bailive of the Towne, Strangways a man famous for Sea-service, and Goodale a most skilfull myner.
  8. For the recovery of this little Towne, the French King gave immortall thankes to God publickely, the Papists all over France triumphed for joy, making their bragges that the English were cast out of France by the helpe of the same Protestants by whom they were called into France, and that thereby were sowne the seeds of discord betweene the English and the Protestants of France. Hospital the Chancellour, congratulating this felicity to the French in a long Oration, to amplifie the same reported out of a false rumour that the English Fleet came with new supplyes of men within sight of the Towne the next day after it was yeelded up; and he pronounced that by this warre the English had quite forfeited their Title and right to claime Calice. The Soldiers that were brought backe into England sicke of the plague dispersed the force thereof with such a contagious pestilence, that it grievously afflicted the whole Realmee; and out of the City of London alone, which consisteth of a hundred twenty one Parishes, there were carried forth to burying about 21130 corpses.
  9. Whereas in the heate of the Civill warre in France, the Duke of Guise the Queene of Scots uncle was slaine, her Dowry money not payed out of France, Hamilton Duke of Castle-herault deprived of his Dukewome, and the Scots excluded from the Captainship of the Guard in France, she certainely tooke these things very heavily. The Cardinall of Loraine another of her uncles, fearing lest hereupon she forsaking the French, should apply her selfe to the amity of the English, propounded unto her againe by Croc the marriage with Charles of Austria, tendering her the County of Tyrol in Dowry. She imparteth the matter to Queene Elizabeth, who by Randolph advised her the same things which I have before spoken, of taking her an husband, and then more expressly commended unto her for an husband Robert Dudley (whose wife being Robert’s heire, had dyed of late by a fall from a steepe place), and promised her that if shee would marry him, she should by authority of Parliament be declared her sister, or daughter, and heire of England, in case she should dye without issue. As soone as the Queene mother and her uncles in France understood this by Foix the French Ambassadour in England, they so disdained this marriage with Dudley as altogether disparageable, and most unworthy of the blood Royall and regall Majesty, that they promised not onely payment of her Dowry money unto her, but also to the Scots the confirmation of their ancient liberties, and more ample liberties also, if she would firmely persist in the French amity, and reject that tendered marriage. They suggested under her also that Queene Elizabeth propounded this marriage not seriously, but colourably, as if shee had pointed out Dudley to be an husband for her owne selfe; neither was there any confidence in the authority of Parliament, for in England what one Parliament established, another repealed. Besides, the counsels and designes of England did ayme at nothing else but to keepe her by any cunning from marrying at all. Yet she referred the matter to a conference, being in the meane time sore troubled and vexed at home, whilest Murray cast the Archbishop of Saint Andrewes in prison because he had not abstained from celebrating Masse, for which he hardly obtained pardon with many teares, and the hot Ministers of the Church, borne out by Murrays authority, offered violence to a Priest that said Masse at Court (which by Law was allowed), and yet they escaped without punishment. Neither was she able to suppresse those that were up in commotion, though she tooke all the care she could for the Common-wealth, graunting a generall pardon, augmenting the Judges stipends, making wholesome Laws, instituting the paine of death upon adulterers, and often hearing causes in Court of Justice, that shee might with an even hand containe the highest with the lowest.
  10. In this sorrowfull yeere dyed to the great griefe of the Protestants William Lord Gray of Wilton, Governour of Barwick, a man flourishing in military glory, having much wasted his Patrimony by meanes of a heavy ransome which he payed, being taken prisoner in France; to whom succeeded in the government of Berwick Francis Earle of Bedford.
  11. With no lesse sorrow to the Papists, dyed also Alvares a Quadra, Bishop of Aquila, the Spanish Ambassadour in England, who had cherished their hopes of restoring the Romish Religion in Enland, and was most deare and inward with the Pooles, of whom I have spoken before. Whereby he grew to be suspected, as if he bent himselfe wholly to trouble the quiet estate of England and to breake off the amity betwixt the Queene and the Spaniard, that the Queene sollicited the Spaniard to have him called home. But hee excused in respect of piety, and wrote backe that Princes were in a sorry case if for every displeasure their Ambassadours must be called home. Certainely hee tooke it in disdaine that this his Ambassadour was without his privity confined within his house, subjected to examinations, and publickely reprehended, and all for no other cause then that he received into his house an Italian that fled thither, having discharged a Pistoll against another, and had secretly conveyed him away. From this time the Spaniard was more incensed against the English, taking occasion for that the English Pirates invested the French upon the coastes of Spaine and intended to set forth a voyage into West India. And this his conceived anger he manifestly discovered, by sending Richard Shelly an Englishman (that had fled for Religion, and bare a most hatefull minde to his Prince) of an honourable Embassie to Maximilian King of Romans designed, to congratulate him, and by laying hands on certaine English merchant ships in the havens of Baetica, now called Andoluzea, for that the English in pursuing the French had taken certaine ships of the Spaniards.
  12. This yeere also departed this life William Lord Paget, a man well growne in yeeres, and one whose vertue had raised him to very great honours. For by his singular learning and wisedome hee deserved so well that King Henry the eighth tooke him for his Secretary, sent him Ambassadour to Charles the Emperour and to Francis the first King of France, and named him amongst the Curators of the Realme in the minority of his sonne; King Edward the sixth made him Chancellour of the Dutchy of Lancaster and Controller of the Houshold, raised him to the honour of a Baron, honoured him with the Garter of Saint George (which notwithstanding Dudley Duke of Northumberland disgracefully tooke from him, and Queene Mary with honour restored, as to one that by his wisdome and counsell had deserved passing well of the Common-wealth), and made him Lord Privy Seale, which among the highest degrees of Civill honour is the fourth (for King Henry the eighth graunted by Act of Parliament the first place to the Lord Chancellour, the second to the Lord Treasurer, the third to the President of the Kings Councell, and the fourth to the Lord Privy Seale, and above all Dukes also, excepting the Kings sonnes, brethren, uncles, and nephews). Queene Elizabeth, when he was by reason of his age unfit for imployment, eased him of the publicke care according as he desired, and held him most deare though most devoted to the Romis Religion. He left three sonnes, Henry and Thomas, who succeeded one another in the Barony, and Charles whom I am often to speake of. Certaine daughters also he left, matched into Noble houses.
  13. Him Henry Manours, or De Maneriis, Earle of Rutland, accompanied to a better life, being sonne of Thomas the first Earle of this family, and nephew of George Lord Roos, by the daughter of Thomas Saint Leger (alias Sellenger or De Sancto Lodegaria) and Anne his wife (being sister to King Edward the fourth, brought very much honour to this family), and great grandsonne to Robert, who having married the daughter and heire of the most ancient Baron Roos, brought to this Family goodly revenewes and the Title of Lord Roos. This Henry begate on Margaret Nevil, daughter of Ralph Earle of Westmorland, two sonnes, Edward and John, in their order Earles of Rutland, and a daughter married to William Courtney of Ponderham.
  14. Francesse Dutchesse of Suffolke let her wretched life this yeere, being daughter to Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolke by Mary second sister to Henry the eighth, and Queen Dowager of France, after shee had seene her daughter the Lady Jane proclaimed Queene of England, and soone after beheaded, her husband shortly after taken away by the same death, the Lady Catharine her second daughter married to the Earle of Pembrokes sonne, divorced, and now shut up in the Towre, and the Lady Mary her third daughter unequally matched in marriage with Keys Groom-porter at the Court; and she her selfe forgetting the Nobility of her linage, had marryed Adrian Stokes, a meane Gentleman, to her dishonour, yet for her security.

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