1. NOW both the Queene, and with her all England, made open shew of great joy for the approved kindenesse of the King of Scots, and his singular affection to maintaine peace. For hee commanded by proclamation that leavies of men should be made over all Scotland to resist the Spaniards, whom hee had heard to have prepared an huge Armado for the destruction of all Britaine. Anld that hee might the more easily and successefully withstand them, he exhorted all his subjects above al things to lay downe for the good of the Common-wealth those deadly Feudes which the Scots above all others doe exercise among themselves. He straightly commandeth the Borderers (whereof some allured with Spanish gold, had broken into England to gather prey, to the end to breake off the amity betwixt the English and the Scots), not onely that they should attempt no hostility against England, but also most carefully keepe that amity and friendship which the most neere kindred betwixt the Princes, the profession of the same Religion, and likenesse of language and manners had conjoyned, unlesse they would be proclaimed enemies to their Country. Much to the same purpose also did the Queene set forth a Proclamation. And whereas damages had beene done on both sides, it was agreed that Commissioners should be appointed on both parties to heare and examine the same, that Justice and Peace might be mutually maintained.
  2. In the second month of this yeere, Edmund Yorke, Nephew to that Yorke which betrayed the Fort of Zutphen to the Spaniards, and Richard Williams, both of which were apprehended the last yeere, suffered death at Tiburne for high treason. For Yorke confessed that Holt the Jesuite, Hugh Owen, Iacobo de Francisco, and others, had offered him an assignment of 40000 Duckets, signed with the hand of Ibara the Spaniard, if hee would kill the Queene himselfe, or assist the said Richard Williams in killing her; that this assignment remained in deposito in Holts hands; that Holt kissing the holy host, sware that the money should bee payed as soone as the murder was committed; and that he bound Yorke and Williams by an oath, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, to dispatch it. Certainely, remarkable at these times was the lewdnesse of the fugitives in such wicked attempts, while some excited murderers to commit parricide; others gaping after gaine, offered themselves to commit villaines, and being hired with money, presently revealed the same; and other, treacherous amongst themselves, precipitated others into destruction, as it were acting some other thing, intrapped one another with cunning devices, and sometimes charged another with false lyes.
  3. Now did the French King resolve to denounce warre against the Spaniard, who endeavouring to transferre the Scepter of France, had raised a mortall warre in that Kingdome, and with daily excursions infested those of Cambray under the protection of the French King. This the King signified by letters to the Queene, and prayed her to enter into some course whereby they might prosecute warre against the Spaniard; and withall, he complained that the calling home of the English out of Britaine would be prejudiciall to him, and advantagious to the enemy. His purpose to denounce warre the Queene commended, whereunto she wished happy and good successe. Shee answered that she, for her part, had so openly made warre against the Spaniard both by sea and land, in the Netherlands, in Spaine, Portugall, and America, that was manifestly knowne to the whole world. And if the French King had performed as much by an offensive warre (who had hitherto onlely defended himselfe), the Spaniard had not beene able to hurt either of them. She shewed him how the English were of necessity called home out of Britaine, for that rebellions grew hot in Ireland; neither were they by contract to stay any longer in Britaine, the Spaniards being now removed out of the Fort at Brest. Shee complained againe that the English were there ill treated, the promised ayds not joyned unto them, and Morlais not granted them for a place of retreit, according as had beene agreed by contract.
  4. No sooner had the French King and the Spaniard sounded the Trumpet of defiance, but a lamentable warre was kindled in the Countries of Luxenburg and Picardy. Chastelles, and Dorlans are taken by the Spaniards, and Cambray assaulted. Monsieur Chivalier, being sent by the Kings Councell into England, maketh earnest suit that some auxiliary Bands may be sent over into Picardy within fifteene days after the date of the letters, whereas he had spent twelve of them in his journey, and there remained but three to leavy and send over the men. Yet was there a leavy of men dispatched without delay, who were to be sent over if need were to Calys, Boloigne, Diepe, and the Coast Towns; and this was signified in haste by Sir Roger Williams to the King and the Governours of the Townes aforesaid. And withall the Kings Councellours in Britaine made most earnest suite by letters for ayd to be sent thither. But whereas they neither wrote for any certaine number, nor for what use, nor assigned any place of retriet, shee could make no definitive answere.
  5. Now were rumors brought, and those not obscure, but with loud and unanimous voyce of all men from all parts of Europe, that the Spaniards were now ready to set sayle with a stronger Armado then before for the Conquest of England. Whereupon choyce leavyes of men were made throughout the Coast Shires of England, and sure watch and ward kept upon the Sea Coasts. Two fleets were prepared, the one to encounter them in the British Sea, the other sent to America under the command of Hawkins and Drake. All men buckled themselves to warre, complayning that so many men of singular valour which might have done their owne Countrey excellent service, and so much money were lost in France (for the voyage to Brest cost 47243 crownes of the Sunne; upon the forces also under the Earles of Essex were spent about 200640 besides money lent), and the wayling women with renewed sorrow lamented that their slaine sonnes and brethren were not reserved for these times. In the middest of these troubles Lomeney poasted hither out of France, and though hee concealed not that Cambray was taken, yet did he urge that some auxiliary companies might forthwith be sent over into Picardy, and afterward that some Commissioners might bee appointed to treat about the manner of the warre. Which when it seemed both to the Queene and her Councell preposterous, he growing impatient, imputed the losse of Cambray to the Queene, saying now and then that shee joyed in the Kings misery, and thereby would drive him to make peace in all haste with the Spaniard. She answered him ex tempore to his face, and shortly after by letters, and by Sir Thomas Edmonds, who then bare the place of an Embassadour, that she tooke it very heavily that Cambray was lost, but more heavily that the losse thereof was imputed to her by Lomeney because succours were not sent out of England. Shee shewed that they could not be sent by reason of the straightnesse of time; neither was it any point of wisdome to oppose them against the enemies triumphing army (the French having beene once or twice defeated), lest shee might be thought altogether to neglect the safety of her people. And so farre was shee from rejoycing at the Kings misery, and driving him thereby to make peace with the common enemy, that neither the King himselfe, nor any other, could so much as have any suspicion thereof, if he would call to minde what offices of amity shee had performed toward him. She promised him from thenceforth all helpe and assistance that she was able to yeeld him, considering that they were tossed as it were in one and the same shippe. Neither could any man finde any lacke of industry on her part against the Spaniard, who from the time that the Spaniard had borne hatred against the English (and that for no other cause then that shee was willing to deliver her neighbours from the yoake of his tyranny), never ceased by Sea and Land to weaken his forces, and divert them elsewhere. And now at this very time she was wholly employed in sending forth both a fleet and an army against him. And therefore was shee justly to be excused if she did not instantly ayd him, unlesse shee would have exposed England and Ireland, now destitute of succours, to her enemies now ready to invade them. And whereas some Frenchmen whispered as if shee doubted of the Kings constancy, or looked upon his prosperity with an envious eye, shee protested that such thoughts (as most unworthy a Prince) never entred into her heart, who was most assured of his constancy in freindship, and to whom shee ever wished with all her heart all happinesse to his minde.
  6. Besides this, shee commanded Edmonds to inculcate these things seriously into the Kings head: That it is a necessary point of wisedome in Kings both to sustaine and abstaine in private in many things against their minde, that they may satisfie the people in publique, and keepe all in security, forasmuch as the love the people is the greatest strength of Kings. Which seeing the King himselfe most wisely did, it is necessary that shee also should doe the like, and omit nothing for the conservation of her people, most deare unto her; for whose obedience, fidelity, and fortitude she acknowledged her selfe most bounden to Almighty God. Which things even France it selfe could testifie, where very many of them had manfully and faithfully spent their blood, and certainely more would spend it, if the sorrowfull lamentations of mothers, children, and neighbours did not call upon them to take a little breath, especially seeing the enemy both in England and Ireland did now eminently threaten them. Which things if the King would weigh indifferently, shee doubted not, but hee would take these her answers in good part, and stop his eares against those who for the good of the common enemy laboured to dissolve this their amity; and by dissolving the same, endeavoured to worke both their destructions. That this was the speciall desire of some men, by bad practises to rob Princes both of their stoutest Subjects, and the love of the rest, yet could she by no meanes beleeve that by such practices he would be drawne to enter into a peace with the Spaniard without regard of England (as Lomeney had iterated), because ayd was not supplied out of England. Yea, she knew for certaine that he so great a Prince, if he would respect his reputation, remember his vowes, and not forget the deserts of the English, would not suffer so dangerous and unworthy a thought to enter into his heart, which in another she would thinke worthy to be damned beneath the pit of hell; but if he should be drawne thereunto by the Popish Leaguers (which God forbid), yet she hoped Gods assistance would never faile England; but when she once should see to what end the Spanish preparation tended, she would willingly joyne her ayd as much as commodiously shee could, lest the adversaries from thenceforth, as before, should reape fruit by his necessity. These things Edmonds, and after Sir Henry Unton Embassadour Legier, being returned into France, layd open unto him at large.
  7. But the truth is that the troubles of France increasing daily, very many incited the King to make a peace with the Spaniard, perswading him that the Queene did but feed his eares with a vaine sound. Others deterred him from it, especially Katherine of Navarr the Kings sister, the Duke of Bullion, and Sir Henry Unton the Embassadour, propounding unto him that the hope of peace with the Spaniard would bee weake, who had so long detained from him Navarr his Ancestors kingdome, had disturbed France, and destined it unto himselfe, had claymed little Britaine for his daughter as her inheritance, and had arrogated to her a faigned title to England by bookes printed, against the most knowne right of the King of Scots, insomuch as hee seemed to have swallowed in a vast hope the Monarch of Europe.
  8. When the King stopped his eares to these perswasions, the Queene began to mistrust his faithfulnesse, especially when she had understood for certain from the Colledge of Cardinals that hee was admitted by the Bishop of Rome into the bosome of the Church of Rome with benediction, upon no other conditions then these, and in these words: He shall abjure all heresies, and professe the Catholike faith, in such forme as shall be done here by his Embassadours. He shall introduce the Catholike faith into the Principality of Bearne, and shall nominate Catholike Magistrates in the same Province. Hee shall procure within a yeere the Prince of Condey to bee drawne out of the hands of heretikes, whom hee shall cause to be instructed and brought up in the Catholike Religion. The decrees of the Councell of Trent shall be published and received in the whole kingdome of France. To the vacant Churches and Monasteries shall be nominated such persons as are sound and Catholike, and free from all suspicion of heresie. Hee shall doe his best endeavour that the Churches and Clergy bee invested anew in the livings seyzed upon without any judiciall proceeding. In bestowing of magistracies and dignities, he shall procure that Catholikes onely be preferred, and that heretikes, as neere as may be, be expelled. The Concordates shall be observed, all abuses being which have crept in contrary to the same. The absolution in France granted by the Bishop, shall be condemned. He shall write letters to all the Princes of Christendome, wherein he shall signifie his conversion, abjuration, and profession of the Catholike faith.
  9. In the meane time the Spaniards, under the leading of Diego Brocher, put to Sea with foure gallyes, and arriving in the moneth of July very early in a morning in Cornwall from the opposite Countrey of Britaine, suddenly fired the Church of Saint Paul standing alone in the fields, Mouse-hole, Neulin, and Pensans, three poore fisher Townes, and presently retired, not having slaine or taken one man. And these were the first and last Spaniards that ever made any hostile landing in England.
  10. But greater matters were undertaken against the Spaniard by some Englishmen privately, and by the Queene publikely. For Sir Walter Raleigh Captaine of the Queenes Guard, having defloured one of the Queenes maides of honour (whom hee after tooke to wife), and therefore cast out of favour and kept many months in prison, being now set at liberty, but banished the Court, following his owne Genius, which was wholly carried to finde out remote Countries, and search the hidden secrets of Nature, undertooke a voyage to Guiana plentifull of gold, and much spoken of by the Spaniards, which voyage hee hoped would redound both to the honour and profit of his Country, as well for getting of wealth, as for annoying the Spaniard the more in the innermore Countries of America. Which hee thought might be done more commodiously than on the Sea coast, where the Townes are never rich but when riches are brought to them, to be carried into Spaine.
  11. From Plimmouth therefore hee set sayle the 6th of February, and the 22nd of March arrived at the Ilse of Trinadada, eight degrees on this side of the Equinoctiall line, and easily tooke the little City of Saint Josephs, and the Governour Antonio Bereo, but found not so much as one piece of silver quoine. Having inquired many things of Bereo, who had diligently searched for mynes of gold in Guiana, hee left his ship in Trinadada, and with Pinnaces and 100 men entring into that vast and many mouthed River Orenoque, searched for Guiana by the space of 400 miles, amongst winding shelves, and parting waters, being scorched with the rejected beames of the Sunne, thoroughly wet with showers, and wrastling with many difficulties, untill the ayre growing cold in the month of Aprill, all places were in a manner overflowne by the waters comming downe, that of necessity hee was to returne, and that not without danger. If any man desire more, let him repaire to an elegant Booke of his concerning this matter, wherein hee most accurately describeth the Countries, as if hee had beene borne and bred there, and relateth many things of the opulency of Guiana, gathered by the resplendent marcasites there found, by the Spanish writings, and credite of the Barbarians or Savages whom hee understood not, and his owne credulous hope; and some things also hee reporteth which seeme fabulous, of the Amazons, and of a Nation which through the height of their shoulders have their face in their brest; at thing which the Poets and farre Travailers <never> here finde. In his returne hee fired Cumana, because the Inhabitants refused to give money to redeeme it, as also hee did certaine Cottages as Saint Maries and Rio de la Hach. Neither did hee give over to prosecute his enterprise afterward with great costs, though the Spaniard to impeach him had placed a Colony at Trinidada.
  12. At the same time, Amias Preston and Sommers sacked the Iland of Porto Sancto neere Madera, Cohe neere Margarita, the little Towne of Coros, and the little City of Saint Iago de Leon, and spared Cumana for money. Some few months before also three shippes of the Earle of Cumberland set upon a huge Caraque which tooke name of the 5 wounds of Christ, which by chance tooke fire as they were in the fight, and was burnt with all the marchandies in her, and the fire flamed abroad in such sort that the English could hardly escape, whereas the Portugais threw themselves into the sea. These things and others were done by private men.
  13. But the Queene being advertised that a great masse of wealth was brought to Porte-Rico, in the Isle of Boriquena or Saint Johns, for the use of the Spaniard, to the end to cut off the sinnewes of warre by intercepting the same, and withall to busie him with warre in another world, sent thither Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake with equall authority at sea, and Sir Thomas Baskervill Generall over the land Forces, with 6 of the Queenes shippes, and 30 other shippes of warre. These set sayle from Plimmouth the last of August, and the 27th day after arrived at the Grand Canary. This Iland Drake and Baskervill were minded to conquer both for honour, and use for the more plentifull victualling of the Fleet. Hawkins was of a contrary opinion, who affirmed that the Fleet was victualled sufficiently already, and that no time was to be lost untill the entereprise were finished. At the length being perswaded by Baskervill, who had undertaken to winne it in foure daies, and by the Saylers who alleadged lacke of victuals, hee assented. But Baskervill being ready to land, perceiving the difficulty, the Townesmen being prepared to fight, and the sea beating furiously upon the shore, hee gave over in the attempt. From thence sayling the space of a full month, they came to the Ilse of Dominica or Sancto Domingo. At which time 5 Spanish shippes, sent forth to observe the English and bring the treasure from Porte-Rico, lighted upon an English Pinnace that straied from the rest; by the Master and Saylers whereof (being put to torture) when they understood that the English had a designe upon Porte-Rico, they plied thither with Sayles and Oares making all the speed they could, advertising them that the English were comming. They hide their gold and silver, and sent forth fly-boats to all the Ilands and sea-coasts, to give knowledge thereof to the Spaniards; who being now forewarned, were sufficiently armed. The English staying in the Isle of Dominico to build Pinnaces, delayed time and came too late to Porte-Rico. Where they had no sooner cast anchor in the roade, but the enemy played upon them with their Ordnance from the mounts, and in suppertime Sir Nicholas Clifford Knight, and Brute Browne were mortally hurt with a shot, and died within a day or two; and the same day Hawkins died of griefe for the grudges arisen betwixt him and the Commanders, being much lamented of the Saylers. The Spaniards had barred up the mouth of the Haven by sinking a very great ship therein, from which they had drawne long masts on both sides to the Forts which defend the passage. Within stood opposite those five Spanish shippes ballasted with sand, filled with muskettiers and furnished with Ordnance. Neverthelesse Baskervill, shipping his men into Boats and Pinnaces, assaid to enter by force, and fired one or two of the Spanish shippes, but being beaten backe with the losse of many of his men slaine with a shoure of small shot, hee had no list to renew the assault. From thence sayling to the continent, they burnt Rio de la Hach, a small Towne, the inhabitants whereof offered 34000 Duckets to redeeme the same; as also they fired some Villages round about. Then they burnt Sancta Martha’s, wherein was no so much as a graine of gold or silver to be found. After this, they tooke Nombre de Dios, voyd both of people and riches, and consumed it with fire together with all the shipping there. From thence they marched with 750 men in armes towards Panama; but when they had laboured a day or two with difficulty thorow most cumbersome narrow wayes and dirty, being assayled on either side with many volleyes of shot out of the woods, and found in the very straight it selfe a Fort against them, as also they understood there were to more to stoppe their passage within, they returned to their shippes weary, and pined for lack of victualls, and their Companies weakened. And now they turned their course, and set saile towards the Ile of Sancto Scodo; and from thence to Porte Belle. In the meane time, to wit, the 28th of January, died Sir Francis Drake of the paine of the flux, and griefe for his adverse successes, and after the manner of Funerals at Sea, was cast over-boord with a peale of Ordnance, almost in the same place where first he beganne to grow famous to the world by his fortunate successes. Of whom if any man desire to understand more, let him see what I have written in the yeere 1580. In their returne, on the South side of Cuba, neere to the Ile of Pines, the Spanish Fleet met them, which wayted for them; but at the first encounter, Baskervill and Throughton, the latter in the Vice-admirall, the other in the Admirall, did so repulse the Spaniards that with small losse received, and greater given (if a man may beleeve them), our Fleet escaped. At the length, after eight moneths, they returned into England with a very small prey, after they had fired a few small Townes, but very much shipping. For the Spaniards in America, who had lived there in safety a long time by reason of the farre remotenesse of the place, after they had now many times sustained great losses at the hands of the French and English passing thither, had fortified themselves more strongly with workes and munition.
  14. Whilest the English attempted these things in the Westerne world, a controversie formerly arisen (but with no hostile minde) betwixt the Queene and the Confederate Estates, gathered strength by little and little, and by little and little vanished, in this manner. Burghley Lord Treasurer had shewed to the Queene how great a masse of money had been spent upon the Low-Countrey warre from the yeere 1585, what a huge quantity of gold and silver had beene sent over out of England in to the Low-Countryes, and there were new coined by the Estates to their great gaine and advantage, and never brought backe againe into England; how great a multitude of most valiant Englishmen had beene consumed in their course; how great expenses also were of necesity to be bestowed to quench the Irish combustion, and divert the attempts of the Spaniard. Moreover, how by the Queenes help, the Estates had defended themselves, offended greatly their enemies, setled their Common-wealth, which before stood wavering, much increased their wealth by commerce, and their power by the enlargement of some Territories, and relieved their neighbours. The Queene, being in a manner weary of the length of the warre and the greatnesse of the expences, shewed all this unto the Estates by Sir Thomas Bodley her Embassadour Legier, especially that England was much exhausted of wealth and military men by meanes of the long warre against the Spaniard, whom she had her enemy in no other respect then that she had ayded them in their extreme danger. Shee required therefore that they would ease her of the charge of mantayning her auxiliary Forces, that they would repay some part of her expenses, and appoint some Commissioners to enter into a course how the whole money disbursed in their cause, and due to Sir Horatio Pallavicina (to whom she had long time payed great usury), might at length be repayed.
  15. The Estates acknowledged and extolled so many and so great benefits of the Queene, accounting themselves most bound to her, next to God, for all their prosperity. But they protested that they had bestowed so much money in the yeere 1588 against the Spanish Armado, the next yeere following, in the Portugall voyage, and afterward in the voyage to Brest, and had sustained such great losses of late by an extraordinary inundation, that they were not so provided of treasure that they could pay their debts, unlesse they should oppresse their miserable people and cut the throat of their cause. And so far were they from finding any ease of expences by their Territories adjoyned, and Townes taken from the enemy, that their charges were rather multiplied in fortifying the same and placing of new garisons therein. And for their commerce, it was and had beene exposed to great losses by arrests in Spaine, and depredations of the English and Dunkirkers. They confessed they had relieved the French King, but not out of any abundance of their wealth or insolent ostentation, or that they flye to his protection, neglecting England, but that they might divert the enemy, and keepe that King from making peace with the Spaniard, unto which he might be driven by need, dissentions at home, and corrupt counsailes. Neverthelesse, some part of the money they promised to pay.
  16. When she required a greater part, they stood stiffly upon it that by the contract in the yeere 1585, the money was not to be repayed before the warre was finished, and that the Queene was not to start backe from her contract, if she respected her honour.
  17. She was of a contrary opinion, grounded upon those of Oracles of the Lawyers and Politicians: All contracts with a Prince are understood to admit an interpretation of sincere fidelity; neither is a Prince bound by his contract, when for just cause the contract turneth to the publike detriment. The peace is not broken, if a Prince goe backe from his contract, when it is done by accident of a new case, or when the mater commeth to a new case; concerning which other provision would have beene made, if it had beene thought upon. Leagues and contracts of Princes ought not to be cavilled, neither ought to be observed to them that breake contracts. A Prince is not bound to a contract solemnely made in a cause respecting his State, if it tend to the prejudice and detriment of his subjects. Every contract though sworne is understood, if matters continue in the same state, but not if they bee changed. A man is bound more strongly to the Common-wealth then to his owne promise. And out of the authority of Seneca, A wise man doth not change his determination, all things continuing which were when hee tooke it; therefore he never repenteth him, because no better thing at that time could be done then was done, no better thing ordayned then was ordayned. Concerning these matters, many, divers, and sharpe debatings there were. As also, whether the Estates were bound to pay any thing to the Queenes successors, if any thing should happen to her other then well, since by the contract neither was the one bound to assist, nor the other to pay. And whether that debt demanded in Pallavicina’s name, were not to be required rather from those of Brabant, Flanders, and Artoys, forasmuch as the contract was made while they were confederates, and before this confederacy at this time of the united Provinces. But Bodley drew the Estates up to that passe at length that, fearing the displeasure of so great a Princesse, they propounded such conditions as follow: That they would forthwith ease the Queene of all the charges shee was at about the auxiliary Forces of the English (to wit, 40000 pounds every yeere). That they would pay 20000 pounds sterling for certaine yeeres, ayd her with a certaine number of shippes, and make peace or hold treaty witn none, but by her consent. And that after a peace concluded, they would pay 100000 pounds yeerely for foure yeeres. Howbeit upon these conditions, that 4000 men should be allowed unto them in England, and all debts wiped out. They made humble suite that these offers might bee accepted for the reasons aforesaid. Moreover, they shewed how their estate was very doubtfull, the people being astonished at the power of the enemy, who now maintained so many arimes, the Provinces disagreeing about the order of contribution money, the chiefe Lords at oddes amongst themselves, many revolting from the received Religion, and the Emperour alluring the people to peace by his Embassadour, insomuch as if this ten yeares debt should no be more sharply exacted, it was to be feared lest a miserable issue would ensue in the confederate Provinces. The Queene would not hearken to their excuse in regard of want, but admitted it out of commiseration, lest shee might seeme willing to dissolve their confederacy, to drive them into despaire, or give cause of triumph to the enemy; yet so as they would joyne 10 ships furnished to her Fleet which shee now prepared against the Spaniard, and supply a monthly pay for a time to the English auxiliaries. And thus controversie lay as it were asleepe till the yere 1598.
  18. In Germany in the meane time the Hanse Townes complained to the Emperour and the Estates of the Empire, that their priviledges for payment of Customes, granted of ancient time from the Kings of England, were abrogated, their goods taken from them in the Portugall voyage, and Monopies of English Merchants erected in Germany. To these things the Queene made answere by Doctor Christopher Parkins, That those priviledges were for the abuse, and other reasonable causes, repealed in the reigne of King Edward the sixt, by authority of Parliament (from which there was no appeale), as things not convenient for the times; to wit, granted when Traffique and Merchandies amongst the English lay dead, and therefore the use of them was in the reigne of Queene Mary quite inhibited. That the Queene sought not an utter abolition of their priviledges (which by act of Parliament in right she might have done), but in the first yeeres of her reygne she had granted them some other priviledges for a while, as the consideration of the times would beare, till they themselves,without fore-warning, expelled the English for no cause out of Hamburg, without any respect of amity. Yet afterward, shee determined to grant unto them the same manner and course of trading which the English use; but they utterly refused it, unlesse they might injoy a greater priviledge; whereas it is neither the use else-where, nor a thing to bee endured, that forreiners should bee preferred before the native people of the Land in the traffique of those commodities which are peculiar to every Countrey, which by those priviledges they challenge. Besides, the Common-wealth cannot subsist, if no other Customes should now be payed by the Hanse Townes then were imposed above 300 yeares agone, if priviledges granted to the detriment of the Common-wealth should be admitted, and such as have bin in times past for just causes repealed should be renewed againe at any mans intreaty. Yet had shee now and then offered them for the Emperors sake, that they should bee almost in the same degree of right with the English; to wit, that in the payment of customes for clothes carried from hence, and for Merchandies wont to be brought in from the Hanse Townes, they should pay no more then the naturall people of the Land; but if they would bring in Merchandies from else-where, to wit, out of Spaine and the Low-Countries into England, it shall be lawfull for them so to doe, paying a penny in the pound for custome lesse then other forreiners, clothes onely excepted, which it is not lawfull for those of the Hanse Townes to transport into other places then the Hanse Townes beyond the river of Ems and the City of Emden towards the East and the Balticke Sea. That she permitted them also to hold their houses at London and else-where in England, and to governe their Company in honest Discipline by their Aldermen, so as nothing be done in prejudice of the Queenes Majesty and the Lawes of the Realme, though it not be contained in any of their priviledges that they may of themselves constitute an Alderman, or make constitutions, and exercise jurisdiction in anothers Kingdome, etc. That the goods which they complaine to have beene taken from them were munition for warre which they were carrying into Spaine against England, whereas notwithstanding this was not lawfull by their Priviledges, and denunciation was made publiquely throughout their Cities that they should not doe it, unlesse they would be holden in the degree of enemies. That their shippes were discharged, and nothing detained but onely the said munition for warre, which alwaies hath beene lawfull by the law of Armes and the ordinances of the Realme. As for the Monopoly, the Germans themselves doe testifie by publique writings that the manner of the Englishmens trading amongst them is farre from a Monopoly. She hopeth therefore that the mandate of Auguspurg for inhibiting the commerce of the English, which those of the Hanse Townes had obtained, was to be suspended, especially considering that the Estates of the Empire have no power to take recognizance of Priviledges, or other things whatsoever, belonging to the rights of the Kingdome of England, which being a most absolute Kingdome, acknowledgeth no superiour. In the meane time, neverthelesse, a great quantity of graine was brought into England from the Hanse Townes, after that the Queene had given allowance to every man to bring without custome, which very much abated the price of graine, which by continuall raine in summer, and secret transportation, was growne to that high rate that some of the baser sort of people at London began to rise in commotion.
  19. At that time died in the Tower of London Philip Howard Earle of Arundell, who feeling the Queenes milde severity, was wholly fixed upon meditations from the time that hee was condemned in the yeere 1589. Who being tied to a most strict course of Religion, pined himselfe with an austere kind of life, leaving behinde him one onely young sonne Thomas by Anne Dacres of Gillesland. William also Lord Vaulx departed this life in free custody, a man no lesse devoted to the Romish Religion, to whom succeeded his young grand-sonne Edward, by his sonne and Elizabeth Roper. These were accompanied by Sir Thomas Heneage, who having beene the Queenes servant from his youth, was first Treasurer of her Chamber, then Vice-Chamberlaine, and Chancellor of the Dutchy of Lancaster, a man for of his elegancy of life and pleasantnesse of speach borne for the Court, leaving one onely daughter, which by her estate and numerous issue increased the Family of the Finches.
  20. In the last month of the yeere was William Whitakers delivered from his humane prison, a Divine most accomplished with ornaments of piety and learning, the Queenes professor of Theologie in the University of Cambridge the space of 15 yeeres, and Master of Saint Johns Colledge there, having much weakend his body with studies when the question exercised the Divines there, Whether true and justifying faith may be lost; and leaving a great misse of him to the University men, whom by his preaching, example of life, and writings, hee much profited.
  21. In the same month departed this life Sir Roger Williams Knight, a Welshman, of the Family of Penrose in Monmouth shire, who first beare mercenary Armes under the Duke of Alva, and afterward having discharged most happily all offices of military discipline, might have beene equalled with the famousest Captaines of our age, if with more wary wisdome he could have tempered the heat of his warlike mind. In this certainly hee excelled many, that being a rude and unlearned man, and only tought by experience, hee wrote with learned judgement the history of the Low-Countrey warres, at which hee was present, and in a singular Booke hath maintained the military art not received, contrary to that of the former age, not without the envy of old souldiers and lovers of Archery. At his funerall in Pauls Church was present the Earle of Essex in blacke, and as many military men as were in the City. The next day after his funerall died also Sir Thomas Morgan, who was present at the death of Sir Roger his Kinsman. Hee also was a Welshman, a Knight, and well stricken in yeeres, borne of the noble Family of the Morgans of Pencarne in the same County, who being bred up to the warres from his youth, purchased by his military vertue, and moderation of minde, great praise amongst all men, but greater with the Queene by his untained fidelity; after that hee had delivered into her hands an Assignment of a great yeerely summe of money, made unto him under the Spaniards hand, to draw him to his party, contenting himselfe with a meane stipend which hee received from her.
  22. Russell Lord Deputy of Ireland, foreseeing by that which I have related about the end of the last yeere a tempest of warre growing, made earnest suit by his friends in England that some expert souldier might be sent over to be neere him with his counsaile and assistance, and above all men he wished most for Baskervill, though hee named not the man. But Sir John Norris was sent, whom he little expected, a man thoroughly trained up to military discipline, valiant against dangers, and famous for his worthy exploits. As soone as Tir-Oen had heard that hee was comming with 1300 old souldiers which had served in little Britaine and the Low-countries, and with a new supply of men out of England, and that the English had a designe against the Castles of Balishanon and Belyck at the issue of Lough Earne, hee, being privy to his own guiltinesse, assaulted the Fort at Black-water at unawares, by which is a psssage to the Country of Tir-Oen, and tooke it by surrender, whilest Edward Cornwallys the Captaine thereof was negligently absent. And almost at the same instant, wavering and much troubled in minde, hee wrote letters to the Earle of Kildare offering him is assistance against the injuries of the Lord Deputies officers, and on the other side promised the Earle of Ormond and Sir Henry Wallop Treasurer of the Army, that hee would continue in his allegiance, and besought the Lord Deputy and Sir John Norris by letters that hee might be favourably dealt withall, and that hee might not against his will be thrust forward to the breach of his fidelity. But these letters Bagnall the Marshall intercepted, and (as the Earle afterward complained) suppressed them, to his very great damage.
  23. For presently after, in the month of July hee was by publique proclamtion in English and Irish proclaimed an enemy to his Country and a traitor, by the name of Hugh O-Neal the sonne of Matthew Fadareugh, that is, the Black-smith, the base son of Con O-Neale. In the proclamation, first was set forth his ingratitude towards the Queene, who had relieved his necessities with a yeerly pension, had raised him to the honour of an Earle, enriched him with large possessions above the Earles of Irlenad, and had pardoned him the injury done against his neighbours and his barbarous cruelty against Shan O-Neals sonne, whom hee had strangled, without bringing his cause to hearing. Then how unworthily hee held in prison Shan’s other sonnes bound in irons, and how perfidiously hee allured the Lords of Ulster to joyne in rebellion with him. Lastly, a pardon is promised to those that would forsake him, and all and every person is warned that they doe not by any meanes ayd the Rebels.
  24. At this time were mustered amongst the Rebells in Ulster about 1000 horse and 6280 foot, and in Connacht 2300 which were also at Tir-Oens becke, and of these very many expert souldiers, having beene trained and exercised to their Armes from the time that Perot Lord Deputy had prescribed to every of the Lords of Ulster certaine companies to be exercised in Armes to resist the Iland-Scots, or had beene bred in the Low-Country warre, whom hee had caused to be sent over thither with a purpose nothing provident for the time to come, or had beene allured by the Lord Fitz-Williams to the English discipline of warre. And no lesse was the number of the English Forces under Sir John Norris, who was commanded to march against the Rebels to prevent the succours expected out of Spaine. For to him was granted from the Lord Deputy by the Queenes commandement (that it might be done with less disgrace to the Lord Deputy) the principall authority for matters of warre, with the title of Generall of the Army in the Lord Deputies absence in Ulster, and absolute power to pardon all Rebels whatseover. To what intent this was done I know not, but certainely it was to the admiration of most men, considering that the whole force of command consisteth in the command of one, and nothing is more monstrous then a two headed command, nothing more mischievous. Yet did the Lord Deputy joyne himselfe with him, and so they marched as far as Armach, striking such terrour into the Rebels that Tir-Oen, quitting the Fort at Black-Water, set fire on the Villages adjoyning and the Towne of Dungannon, and burnt them downe, threw downe a great part of his house there, and now bewailing that he was quite undone, sought lurking places to hide himselfe in; when they marching no further, for that they were not sufficiently provided of victuals (for hereby have many expeditions in Ireland failed of successe), made a stand, and having proclaimed Tir-Oen Traitor in his owne Territory and left a Garison in the Metropolitan Church of Armach, returned. In their returne Tir-Oen carefully observed them, and now and then shewed himselfe a farre off. Yet they strengthened the Garision at Monaghan. And when they were now come neere to Dundalk, the Lord Deputy, according to the authority hee had received, committed the prosecution of the warre to Norris, and after many most kinde words interchanged betwixt them, returned to Dublin, taking provident care for the Estate of Leinster, Connacht, and Munster.
  25. Norris stayed with a strong Army in Ulster, and did nothing answerable to the expectation raised of him, either out of emulation against the Lord Deputy (which was perniciously cherished from the Chourt with egregious dissimulation), while the one could not brooke an equall, the other a superiour; or out of the cunning of military men, who are pleased that warre be drawne out at length, knowing they are no longer esteemed then they are of use, or else out of his favourable inclination to Tir-Oen, which was no lesse then was the hatred of the Lord Deputy against him. For whilest hee lent an eare to Tir-Oen and his favourers, he secretly accensed the Lord Deputy as injurious to Tir-Oen, in that he thought to peace was to be made with him. And indeed, the Lord Deputy had perswaded thimselfe that Tir-Oen did nothing but worke delayes while he looked for succours out of Spaine; and therefore he alwayes refused all parlyes and truces with him as treacherous and pernicious, supposing that it neither stood with the Majesty of the Queene, nor his owne honour, to admit either letters or messengers from one that was proclaimed traytor. Norris on the contrary, being apt to beleeve him, had conceived great hope of drawing him to conditions of peace, insomuch that hee admitted him to a conference, all men admiring that so great a warriour had sooner descend to a conference then to a conflict with a proclaimed traytor. But that subtill fox nourished this hope in him by exhibiting a feigned submission subscribed with his owne hand, and by begging pardon upon his knees before Norris and Secretary Fenton; as also by protesting, That he had not neglected his obedience to his Prince (unto whom he was much bounden) out of any malice or ambition, but that his friends in regard of injuries undeservedly offered unto him, and a plot layd for his life, being greedy of revenge, had rushed into rebellion. That this was his first crime of treason, which hee promised to wash away by his faithfull obedience and with his blood, and withall to renounce the title of O-Neal, which he had taken upon him lest others should usurpe it to defraud him thereof. And that from henceforth he would have nothing to doe with the Spaniard (with whom he affirmed hee had had nothing to doe before the moneth of August), so as these things might be passed over with mercy and oblivion, and a full pardon might bee granted to him and his. O-Donell in like sort submitted himselfe. Hereupon a truce was concluded till the first of January, and two hostages delivered. And shortly after, Feagh Mac-Hugh with the same maske of dissimulation, falling downe with a sorrowfull howling at the Lord Deputies feet, craved pardon, and was received into protection, living quietly a little while.
  26. The wiser sort have observed that this conference, and these and such like truces, have beene very prejudiciall and hurtfull to the Queene; for the rebels in the meane time get a free time to digest their secret counsayles and designes, to strengthen their party abroad with new confederacies, and at home with new forces. For lewd and vile people daily associated themselves unto them, whilest the English Forces with great costs lay idle, and fed upon the faithfull Subjects Countrey, forasmuch as by the truce they were not to live in the enemies Countrey.

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