- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
THE YEAR 1621
January 1 The King did not attend Chapel, but the Prince and Peers did. After dinner the French Ambassador visited him.
The Duke of Lennox lavishly entertained the Ambassador at Hampton Court with hunting and hawking.
4 The King entertained the Ambassador and the Frenchmen with an elegant banquet in the Upper Hall of Parliament.
They sat in this order: the King at mid-table, the Ambassador at his left, the Ambassador Ordinary at the table’s head. The Duc d’Auvergne was not present, being uninvited to the King’s table. The Prince did not attend the banquet.
On Epiphany Sunday the King attended Chapel, held up with difficulty. He offered gold, incense, and myrrh, and touched eighty victims of scrofula.
A son has been born to the Earl of Salisbury.
7 The Lord Chancellor summoned Norroy King of Arms and myself, and very early in the morning discussed the accoutrements needful for the honor of a Viscount. For the King has decided to invest him with the title of Viscount St. Albans in solemn ceremony.
8 Viscount Doncaster entertained the French Ambassador and his suite with an elegant banquet at Essex House, which the King attended with the Prince, the Chancellor, the Treasurer, etc.
In a shepherds’ masque the Scots and English took the palm from the French, as in jousting and running at the ring. A squabble over this performance broke out between Ailosse and the Comptroller of the Royal Household, but a more serious one between Baron Digby and George Goring, who challenged him to a duel because he had displaced his wife from the seat in which the Duke of Lennox, Seneschal of the Household, had placed her, but the King affected a reconciliation. The Ambassador bade farewell to the King.
13 A Council of War is established, to which are summoned the Earls of Oxford, Essex, Leicester, Viscount Wilmot, Baron Davers, Edward Cecil, Horace Vere, and *** Bingham. Certain questions are proposed to them about the recovery of the Palatinate.
Montgomery, Bishop of Meath and Claghern, died. Doctor Usher is succeeding him.
Parliament is prorogued to the last day of the month.
Twice the King made ready to for his journey to Theobalds but, impeded by the gout, abandoned the attempt.
14 Baron Norris and Wray treated with me about the titles of the Earl of Gloucester or Bristol and Viscount Abington, and about writing over the title of Baron Rycot or Tame to Edward Wray and sole daughter of Baron Norris.
The King left for Theobalds, on the day he railed at Secretary Naunton and suspended him from the Secretary’s office, because (as is said) he had treated with the French Ambassador about the marriage of Henrietta, sister of the King of France, without consulting the King.
Immediately after dinner I caught a fever, and suffered severely all night.
Dominus Buck, Prebend of Westminster and almost a nonagenarian, died.
The Bishop of Hereford visited me.
Baron Norris informs me that the King has granted the titles of Earl of Berkshire and Viscount Tame.
Thomas Coventry, who had been King’s Sollicitor, is made the Attorney General. Robert Heath, who was Recorder, is made the Sollicitor. Robert Shaw, Recorder of London, died February 6.
Viscount Haddington becomes Earl of Holderness and Baron of Kingston, with the additional honor that he carries the sword before the King on August 5, i. e., the anniverary of the Gowrie Plot.
27 By plenary investiture the Chancellor was created Viscount St. Albans. Baron Carew carried the robe in in front of him, Baron Wentworth carred the coronet, Marquess Buckingham and supported him. He gave a sevenfold thanks to the King, because he made him, first, Sollicitor; 2. Attorney General; 3. Privy Councellor; 4. Keeper of the Seal; 5. Chancellor; 6. Baron of Verulam; and 7. Viscount of St. Alban.
29 James Lee, Attorney of the Court of Wards, is appointed Chief Justice of the Royal Bench, is replaced as Attorney of the Court of Wards by Walter Pye.
30 On the next-to-last day of the month, with the weather snowy and cold, the King came on horseback, under a canopy, to the Abbey, with the Peers in fair array. Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester, delivered a sermon. The Earl of Cumberland bore the sword before the King, and Arundel the Marshal’s wand. The Bishop of Winchester preached his sermon on a text out of Psalm 82, God stands in the congregation of kings.
February 2 On the Feast of Purification the sun shone bright all day. See if intense cold will follow.
4 Thomas Richardson is admitted as Speaker of the Lower House, and presented to the King. Who arrived in a private carriage, and returned home before 6 o’ clock.
6 It was sharply debated in the Lower House about free speech against Recusants; against Papist pictures, that they be removed from the city; about those who gathered at the Spanish Ambassador’s house to hear Mass; about the conferral of the subsidy. It was also proposed that every member of the Lower House partake of the Holy Eucharist, so that James Usher Bishop of Meath might preach the sermon, with the Dean of Westminster as it were thrust asode.
That day Edward Coke conducted himself as an excellent patriot, as he explained that every proclamation against Parliament has no force.
In the Upper House proposals were made about the artillery, about revoking the Act of Edward III about appointing certain men to hear complaints about injustices in Chancery and other courts, and about the Act of Reassumption.
10 The cold spell is broken.
Sheppard, who rather freely attaced the Puritans, is ejected from Parliament, and Flud, who asserted that the Palatine Elector has no claime on the kingdom of Bohemia, is branded.
In the Lower House some Members complained about the sending of artillery to Spain, and this is related to the King, who answers that two years ago he gave the Spanish Ambassador leave to send them, as he did to the United Provinces and the Duke of Bruswick, and he is unable not to keep his word.
16 The Earl of Berkshire stood in the narrow entrance to the Chamber, conversing with his servants. Baron Scroope passed him by and, when he scraped by in the narrow place because Berkshire did not make much way, he followed after him, rather irate, and rather rudely gave him a shove in the presence of the Prince and the entire House. Hence he is committed to the Fleet for close custody.
On the same day the Houses jointly offered two subsidies and demanded that the laws against Papists be put into effect, and that they be confined to their houses and disarmed.
18 The Lower House partook of the Eucharist at St. Margaret’s, Westminster. Dominus Usher, Bishop of Meath, preached a sermon on 1 Corinthians 10:7, For we are of one bread and one body, etc.
19 But on the 19th Edward Sackville, and on the 20th William Airmin took Communion apart in the Collegiate Church of Wesminster, and afterwards William Airmin.
21 By means of the Prince, several of the Earls and Barons petitioned the King that the new Scottish and Irish Viscounts should not have precedence in England before the Barons of England. The King took this amiss, and grew irate at Baron Dispencer.
On the same day a discussion about oppressions was opened in the Lower House, and Drake of Devonshire showed that Giles Mompesson had acted unfairly against inkeepers and brewers by means of his agents, and the servants of the Treasurer and the Chancellor, Dixon and Almond.
Before these days, the King made answer to five articles against Recusants, and hoped that the severity of the law would be visited on them, provided however that Catholic princes would not be provoked against worshippers of the Reformed Religion. He would treat with the Ambassadors of the Kings of Spain and France that they would not admit Englishmen to their Masses. He also informed them that the King of France was now intending a siege of La Rochelle and the Prince of Savoy one of Geneva, and that the King of Spain had recovered the Veltlin as his possession.
Sebastian Harvey, that wealthy man, died.
23 Sir Francis Mitchell, lately knighted, is ignominiously sent to the Tower of London by the Lower House, being marched through the city, because of his heavy actions against brewers and innkeepers.
Edward Somerset, younger son of the Earl of Worchester, died of dropsy.
24 Army review in Middlesex, at Toothiill.
Baron Digby set sail from London.
Henry Potman, who married the Earl of Derby’s daughter, died.
The Barons of England, who ill suffered the Viscounts of Ireland to have preferment over themselves, are ordered to come to the King and kiss his hand. Few were admitted, and they rebuked.
From Italy comes neews that Pope Paul V has died, and substituted in his place *** de Louis, Bishop of Boulogne, and that he has taken the name of Gregory XV. In these days the King of Spain proposed to the United Provinces a general peace under these conditions: 1. if they should acknowledge him as their Protector; 2. if they should sail no more to the East and West Indies; 3. if they should permit Catholics to practice their religion and have their own churches; 4. if they should open navigation between Antwerp and Zeeland.
March 3 Giles Mompesson, after being called before the Lower House, guiltily fled. Soon a proclamation for his arrest was published. Buckingham, on whom he had pinned his faith, abandoned him.
9 The Lower House complained that the jurisconsults who they employed to bear messages to the Peers had acted in bad faith and were liars.
10 The King heard the Lower House about this lie, and afterwards amused himself at hawking.
Albert Morton returns from Germany, and the King did not admit him today.
14 There was a squabble between the Marquess of Buckingham, Southampton, and Sheffield, who interrupted him since he frequently talked on the same subject, and that contrary to the accepted order in Parliament, but the Prince effected a reconciliation.
Robert Bowyer, Parliamentiary Clerk, died.
Sir John Cotton of Kent died.
At Hampton Court the Bishops of Winchester and Lincoln showed the King a concession of subsidies made by the clergy of the County of Kent, in the name of the rest of them. The Chancellor, accused of extortion, announced that he would resign office, as if tired of the honor, since he was wounded by the calumnies of many men.
18 The Vaivod of Sindomerski’s son, Ambassador from the King of Poland, paid a call on the King at Westminster, and indicated in Latin how much treat of war menaced the Christian world from their common enemy, the Turk, and about the disturbances that had arisen in Germany.
Funeral of Sebastian Harvey.
The Chancellor sends letters to the Lords of Parliament by Buckingham, and prays that they not condemn him innocent and unheard by the false innuendoes of certain men.
23 When the Prince entered the anniversary joust, a sleety rain poured down, and soon a most welcome serenity broke forth. And he took the palm from the others by running twelce courses.
27 The King came to Parliament and pronounced sentence on Giles Mompesson, his wife’s dignity undisturbed.
28 Parliament is prorogued to April 18th.
29 John King, Bishop of London, died of the stone.
30 Proclamation of the proscription of Giles Mompesson, and another about the revocation of patents of inns and taverns, and also of patents for gold and silver thread, and another one about conformities.
April 5 It is announced that Philip III King of Spain has died peacefully, and that his son Philip, 17 years of age, has succeeded him.
Edward Villiers returns home.
Certain apprentices who handled the Spanish Ambassador shamefully are whipped through the city.
Edward Earl of Hertfordshire dies.
16 The King comes to London City Hall and most seriously rebukes the magistrates for the common people’s insolence towards Ambassadors and noblemen in the City of London and adjacent parts, threatening to restrain them with armed bands, and an proclamation about this matter is issued April 8th.
10 John Bennet, judge in the Court of Prerogatives, is very seriously accused of exactions and corruption, and so he is first committed to the Earls of London, and then swiftly to prison.
The sentence is pronounced by gowned Peers.
May 1 I went to Sanderhurst, and vainly sought for the camp of the Emperor Alexander Severus, who was killed in Britain in the town of Sisila. Some believe that he was killed at this place, but by guesswork and no sure proof.
2 My birthday, on which I was wholly at leisure for good studies and pious meditations.
The Great Seal and Chancellor’s authority are taken way from Viscount St. Albans on May 3, and handed to the Treasurer, the Chamberlain, the Duke of Lennox, and the Earl of Arundel.
The Chancellor is imprisoned at the King’s pleasure. He is fined 40,000£ and debarred from any place in Parliament or the judiciary, and forbidden to approch Court closer than twelve miles.
Sentence is pronounced in the Lower House against Flud, who has scurrously slandered the Palatine Prince and his wife, but this is revoked by the King, who desires to be informed whether any judicial authority resides in the Lower House.
5 Francis Michell is brought before the bar and judged, so that he be degraded from his knightly rank without prudice to his wife and children, that he hold no office, be fined 1000£, and be imprisoned that the King’s will in Finsbury Field, in the prison that he himself had founded.
Among the Peers there was dissention whether to bring ex-Attorney Yelverton to trial. The Barons thought that both sides ought to be heard, Arundel opposed. Baron Spencer, who, when Arundel cast in his teeth his rustic life, answered, “The King, who transformed me from a commoner to a noble, likewise ennobled your common self.” He was attanted, but Prince Charles restored him to his erstwhile favor.
Arundel is sent to the Tower.
Yelverton the ex-Attorney is fined.
Clement Coke, younger son of Edward the ex-Justice is clapped in the Tower for his insolent slander of Morrison.
8 After noon it thunders.
15 Robert Tonson, Bishop of Salisbury, died destitute at Westminster, and was buried there. He left behind fifteen children and his widowed wife.
Flud, who scurrously mocked the Palatine Elector and his consort, is ridden through the city backwards on a horse, exhibited as a spectacle in the stocks, whipped, has a K branded on his forehead, fined, and condemned to life imprisonment.
Countess Kelly, Norris’ daughter, died.
The ex-Chancellor is delivered to the Tower, but freed after two days.
The King hunts at Chesilhurst on the last day of May.
June *** Dominus Davenant is chosen as successor in place of Tonson in the bishopric of Salisbury, and the King advises him not to marry.
Melbourn of Meath is translated to the See of Carlisle.
Mountain of Lincoln to the Cathedral of London.
Williams, Dean of Westminster, is named to Lincoln and appinted Keeper of the Great Seel.
The Master of St. John’s College, Cambridge, is to be transfered to the See of Meath, and Senhouse put in his place.
Curly is chosen as a replacement for Tooker as Dean of Lichfield.
16 The Earl of Southampton is handed over to the Dean of Westminster for close custody.
Likewise John Seldon and Edwin Sandys are handed over to a London Sheriff
On the last day of term after 3 p. m., Sir Francis Michell is brought by the Sheriffs of London to Westminster Hall. Soon appeared Commissioners for the office of the Earl Marshall, namely the Keeper of the Privy Seal, the Duke of Lennox, the Marquess of Buckingham, the Eurl of Arundel, and a number of Barons as spectators. In their presence Francis Michell is brought to the bar. Then Parliament’s sentence against him is read aloud in a loud voice by Philpot the Pursuivant at Arms. His spurs are cut off and cast aside by servants of the Earl Marshal. Then he is relieved of his sword (which was silver when it was supposed to have been gilded), which is broken over his head and cast aside. Finally it is pronounced that he is no longer a gilded knight, but rather a knave, as once was Andrew de Herclay when he was degraded by Anthony Lucy.
Garter, Clarenceux, and Norroy Kings of Arms sat at the feet of the Commissioners.
Thomas Harriot, a distinguished mathematician, is dead. He bequeathed his gods to Viscount de l’Isle and Thomas Ailsbury.
The Duke of Lennox married the widow of the Earl of Hertfordshire.
I participated in the election at Westminster, and remained their four days. On Wednesday I returned to Chesilhurst.
July *** The King reconcilied Edward Coke and his wife.
Essex betook himself and some few others to Holland.
15 John Williams, Dean of Westminster, was made Keeper of the Great Seal, and attended Evensong, with Mainwairing carrying the Seal before him, and Sutton acting as usher.
The Bishop of Bangor is examined, and committed ot the Fleet, but freed a little later.
Edward Montagu is created Baron Montagu of Boughton.
Fulke Greville is created Baron Brook, and Thomas Baron Darcy de Chich is created the Viscount of Colcester, for himself and the heirs of Thomas Savage.
Henry Baron Hundsdon is created Viscount Rochford, Lionel Cranfield is created Baron Cranfield of Cranfield in the County of Bedfordshire. He married the daughter of James Brett. An proclamation is made about parliamentary affairs.
The Earl of Oxford is placed in custody because of his garrulousness. Likewise Sir George Leeds and Sutcliffe, Dean of Exeter, Sir Christopher Neville, and Brise, a minister.
Marquess Hamilton is dispatched to Scotland for the holding of a Parliament, and the Viscount of Doncaster to France as Ambassador Extraordinary.
Edward Herbert is recalled from France because he had irreverently delt with Constable Luine.
Edward Sackville is chosen in his place.
George Mountaigne is translated from the See of Lincoln to London.
St. Swithin’s day is clear, with the Ass and the Stall rising in the heaven.
Bosseville returns to France with a bundle of letters for Puteanus.
18 The Earl of Northumberland is released from the custody in which he had been kept for fifteen full years, with a peal of artillery fire.
At the same time the Earl of Southampton is freed. Likewise Edwin Sandys and John Selden.
Dominus Wilson retired as Master of the Westminster School in exchange for a cash payment and annual pension.
Henry Spellman visited me.
Albert, Archduke of Austria, died at Brussels, age 62. While the Archbishop of Canterbury was hunting in Baron Zouch’s Burnhill Park close to Hertford Brdge, by chance he killed a game warden with his harquebus. It is asked if by this involuntary homicide he has incurred a charge of irregularity or a suspension from office.
That warlike man Bucquoy is killed at Neuheusel by the Hungarians, caught in an ambush.
Proclamation that the secret business of State and the King’s affairs should not be discussed with excessive liberty.
August 5 A halo around the sun about 4 p. m. William Lord St. John, Marquess Winton’s firstborn son, has died.
Holms, the Precentor of Westminster, has died.
Baron Chandos has died at Spa.
Doctor Hackwell, the Prince’s chaplain, has written a tract against his marriage with the Infanta of Spain, which he gave to the Prince without the King’s knowledge. Hence the King, rather angry, placed in custody the Prince’s secretary Thomas Murray, the Doctor, his brother, and all the other guilty men.
The Countess of Bedford returned from Holland, whither she had gone to visit the Queen of Bohemia.
William Cotton, Bishop of Exter, died.
While by means of Baron Digby the King is interceding with the Emperor and the King of Spain that the ex-King of Bohemia be restored to his ancestral honor of the Palatinate, he himself, following the banners of the United Provinces, is fighting against them, and so the King, irritated, is railing against him.
Wiliam du Vaire, Vice-Chancellor of France and Bishop of Lisieux, died at age 64.
Last day of August I frequently coughed up clotted blood.
September *** Edward Villiers, sent to Germany to see the Palatine Count, returned at the end of the month.
A chasm was seen in the heaven.
The ship called the Great James returned from East India, laden with pepper and precious wares.
George Chaworth is sent to the Archduchess to condole her on the death of Archduke Albert.
The Earl of Arundel is made absolute Earl Marshal of England with an annual pension of £2000.
Funeral of George Boul (?), Alderman of London.
Robert Maunsell, Commodore of the English fleet against the Turks, returned from the Mediterranean, having accomplished nothing distinguished.
Fulke Greville Baron Brook, made a Gentleman of the King’s Bedchamber, resigned from the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer in favor of Richard Weston.
Sucking was made a member of the Privy Council.
Octrober Cottington, agent in Spain, was designated the Prince’s Secretary in place of Thomas Murray.
9 The Keeper of the Seal visited Westminster Hall without ceremony. Algerian Pirates plunder about 35 English and Scottish ships in revenge for the war waged by Robert Mansell.
It is reported that the King of Poland is afflicted by a great slaughter at the hands of the Turks, and that his son has been taken captive by them.
15 The suit was heard whether York is a Herald, and Noyes offered proof that he is not. On the contrary, Whitfield the Chief Baron of the Exchequer particularly favors York.
Funeral of Sir William Reade.
On St. Luke’s Day Westminster Hall is flooded.
Arsenne arrives from the United Provinces to treat of East Indian affairs.
November *** The Archbishop of Canterbury is declared by the Delegates not to have incurred any irregularity, nor to have inflicted any scandal on the Church.
11 Lord Williams, Keeper of the Great Seal and Dean of Westminster, is created Bishop of Lincoln in the Collegiate Church of St. Peter. Lincoln, Worcester, Ely, Oxford, and Llandaff laid on hands, delegated by special royal authority.
18 Dominus Davenant has been consecrated Bishop of Salisbury, Valentine Carey Bishop of Exeter, and William Laud bishop of Meith, in the Chapel of the Bishop of London’s palace.The Bishops of London, Worchester, Oxford, Ely, and Llandaff laid on hands. Wearing gowns, the Viscount of Colchester, the Viscount of Rochford, Baron Brook, and Baron Montagu are introduced into the House of Lords, and, documents of the Keeper of the Seal having been handed them, and then handed back, they are installed in their seats.
There is an upheaval in the Lower House over the incarceration of Edwin Sandys, until Secretary Calvert protested that he had not been imprisoned over a Parliamentary cause.
A great storm is stirred up in the Lower House against Recusants, and it is voted that they must pay a double subsidy because they are foreign-born, since they have shown themselves foreign to the received religion and devotees of the Pope.
On the same day a third subsidy is granted.
Bad news from the Palatinate is announced, namely that Heidelberg is taken, and Horace Vere and the English routed, but this proves false.
22 The King forgives the Archbishop of Canterbury all irregularity, if he has chanced to incur any.
December 4 Peter Heymore and another are sent to Edwin Sandys to determine whether he was placed in custody for Parliamentary reasons.
The subsidy granted is to be paid in February.
On the following day the King in a letter heavily rebukes the Lower House because it had sent to Edwin Sandys. He bids them not become involved in secret State affairs, nor deal with his son’s marriage. They must not speak injuriously of his dearest brother the King of Spain, and so forth. The session came close to being dismissed.
Ferdinand, son and heir of Baron Dudley died, having left behind a little daughter.
14 The Lower House sent some of its Members to apologize to the King for meddling in secret affairs of State, when they treated of the marriage with the Infanta of Spain. They informed him of their reasons for so doing. They explained the impending evils, and the remedies to be applied: war should be declared on the Pope and the King of Spain, the Papists in England should be repressed by severer laws, and the Protestants abroad supported by greater helps.
York and Somerset Heralds are brought to the bar for contemptuous words uttered against the Earl Marshal in the presence of the President of the Council, the Duke of Lennox, Marquess Hamilton, the Earl of Worcester, Baron Digby, and the Earl Marshal himself, and by unanimous consent they are sentenced to the Marshalsea.
Brograve’s manor in Hertfordshire burnt down.
21 There is no good agreement between the King and the Lower House, and hence a protestation is made about the preservation of liberty. Parliament is prorogued to February, and in a certain sense dissolved.
On the following night several structures in Chancery Lane accidentally caught on fire, and many archives consumed in the flames.
On Christmas Eve the King attended Evensong, and likewise on the day itself he attended both morning service and Evensong.
The King bids Wright, Clerk of the Lower House, to hand over to the members of the Privy Council the diary of the Lower House, so that he might more clearly understand the oppressions of the nation.
17 The King takes up the Treasurer’s daughter from the holy font. The other godparents are the Marquess of Buckingham and his wife.
On the same day Edward Coke is sent to the Tower of London. On the next day he is examined.
Robert Cotton and Thomas Wilson are sent to search Edward Coke’s writings.
On the Eve of Circumcision the King did not attend Evensong.