- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1583
WITH this letter Queene Elizabeth being diversly moved (after shee had permitted Mota-Fenellon the French Embassadour to goe with Davison her owne Embassadour into Scotland, watching a time of purpose that hee might at unawares meete Lenox, as hee was returning out of Scotland, and after shee had graciously received Lenox and gently blamed him for his errors in Scottish matters) sent Robert Beale Clearke of the Councell to the Queene of Scotts, a man vehement and austerely sowre, to expostulate sharpely with her about these letters of complaint, and joyntly with the Earle of Shrewsbury to deale with her about her delivery, for that shee had now of late by other letters also earnestly requested that upon security given to Queene Elizabeth shee might at length enjoy her liberty, and be associated with her son in the government of Scotland.
2. Concerning these matters serious consultation was holden in the Councell Chamber of England, and most of them were pleased that shee should be delivered upon these conditions: If she and her son would promise to attempt nothing which might be prejudiciall to Queene Elizabeth or to the Realme of England. If shee would confesse that whatsoever things had been done by her husband Francis the second King of France against Queene Elizabeth were done against her will, and would utterly disallow the same as unjust, confirming the confederacy of Edinburgh, and would condemne all other attempts ever since, ingenuously renouncing them. If shee would be bound to attempt or doe nothing directly or indirectly against the government of the Kingdom of England in ecclesiasticall or civill matters, but resist such as should any waies so attempt as publique enemies. To claime no right in the Kingdome of England during Queene Elizabeths life, and afterwards to subject all the title of succession to the judgement of the Estates of England. If, to the end there might be no place for prevarication, and that shee might not afterwards alleage that she condescended to these conditions being prisoner and constrained thereunto, shee would not onely sweare unto them her selfe, but also would procure the Estates of Scotland to confirme by them by publique authority, and the King to ratifie them by oath and writing, and hostages also to be given. As for her consociation with her son in the government, it was not thought meete that the Queene of England should intermeddle therewith. But this they referred to the King of Scotts himselfe, and the Estates of Scotland. And if they were associated together, they should be dealt withall joyntly about the league; if not, severally.
3. These things were deliberated and consulted of, but with no successe, for the Scots of the English faction utterly rejected them, exclayming that some Scots most mortall enemies to the English nation were by the counsaile of the Queene of Scotts called home out of France, and that Holte and Englishman of the society of Jesus was sent privily into Scotland to take some course for invading of England.
4. Now was there much contending in Scotland betwixt Mota-Fenellon and Maninguille the French Embassadours, and Bowes and Davison Embassadours of England, which of them should by deeper insinuation allure the Kings minde to the love of their nation and draw most men to their party, whilest they diligently crossed one another in their counterplotts and practises. The King carried himselfe in an even course betwixt both, and intermedled not in those factious stirres, which he laboured to compound, knowing well how to temper profit with honestie, and in the meane time not to faile Religion or Common-wealth. But the ministers of the word in Scotland were so inflamed with a certaine zeale against the French, that the same day that Mota-Fenellon was feasted by the Citizens of Edenburgh, they appoynted a fast, and all the day long railed upon the French King, the Duke of Guise, and the Embassadours of the pulpit, and it missed narrowly that they had excommunicate all the guestes. As the Ministers did openly, so also some Noblemen of the English party ceased not covertly to persecute the French Embassadours, untill first Mota-Fenellon, and afterwards Maninguille departed, having notwithstanding cunningly sowne the seedes of discord betwixt the interceptors of the King.
5. As soone as they were gone, the King offered all kindnesse to the Queene of England by Colonell William Stuart and John Colvill, and asked her counsaile and advise for compounding the commotions, and contracting of marriage. And now they which had intercepted the King tooke great courage, when the French Embassadours were removed out of Scotland; and soone after greater, when they heard of Lenox his death. For he, when hee found small comfort with the French King, who was embroiled with civill warres, and secretly applied himselfe to the observance of Queene Elizabeth, died at Paris, and at the poynt of death openly professed (as he had done before) the Protestants Religion, confuting thereby the malice of those which had falsely defamed him to be a Papist.
6. While the interceptors of the King insulted for this Dukes death, at being now certaine assured to retaine the King in their power, behold, the King, when full little they had thought it, as he were scarce eighteene yeares of age, disdayning (seeing he was an absolute King) to be under the government of three Earles, as he had before wisely yielded to the time, so now having gotten a fitt opportunity, he wrought his owne liberty, and withdrew himselfe with a few choice men into the Castle of Saint Andrews, taking occasion by a rumour that the noble men bearing mortall hatred one agains tthe other drew armed companies into those parts to an assembly which hee had summoned; and by just feare thereof, least he should be exposed to danger amongst the tumultuous people. And certainely to this purpose he wrote letters to Queene Elizabeth, whren also hee promised that he would constantly holde amity with her and follow her counsailes in setling of matters. But this (sayd he) happened so unexpectedly that he would by no meanes aske her counsaile. Afterwards with good words and gracious countenance hee warned some of them by whom he was intercepted to depart the Court for avoyding of commotions, and promised them pardon if they would aske it. But Goury onely asked it, and submitted himselfe, using the distinction that hee had offended, not in matter, but in forme. Then called he home Arran to the Court, and held him amongst his inwardest Counsailours, and diligently employed his gaines to procure amity betwixt his Nobility, and purge his Realme and house from civile discordes.
7. Whilest he busied himselfe dayly with these cares, came Sir Francis Walsingham sent from the Queene of England, out of her kinde care least he should by corrupt counsailes in the very flexibility of his age be alienated from the amity of the English to the damage of both kingdomes. Walsingham found the King attended with the flower of his nobility, and another manner of fact and semblance of matters in Scotland, then he had thought. Having audience, he advised him at large the same things which the Queene had before by her letters put in minde of out of Isocrates (namely that it was the parte of a ruler to imbrace the Truth in such sort, that more credit might be given to his word, then to others oathes), and that he would carefully beware of bad counsailors, and bee consant to himselfe. The King answered wiselie and freely, That if hee had written other then what he thought, hee had done so unwillingly, refusingly, and constraynedly by such as compelled him unto it. That he being a free Prince was not to be brought to such a straight that others must impose counsailors upon him whom he would not. That he had done no thing but what was for his honour and security. That he had long since vowed the first fruits of his friendship to his dearest sister the Queene of England, and now he offered them gladly and deservedly; and more plentifull fruits of his friendship he should be able to produce, when all his nobility should obey him, then when he himselfe obeyed one or two of them, and commanded as it were by intreaty.
8. Afterwards Walsingham dealt with him that he would not impute to Queene Elizabeth the things which had lately happened in Scotland; hee shewed how commodious to him and to both Kingdomes amity had beene heeretofore, and would be heereafter, if it were not neglected; and which wouid be soundly established if the variances betwixt the nobility of Scotland might by authority of Parliament bee buried in oblivion; if the noblemen that were removed from the court might be received againe into favour; Religion maintained inviolate, and a firme league betwixt both Kingdomes established. Neither was Walsingham unprovided of money to distribute amongst the King’s servants, to the end they might effect these things. The King answered modestly, that he would hold amity with England, that he would faile of no good office towards the Queene, and most constantly defend the receaved Religion. Then, although he thought Walsingham to be ill affected towards him and his mother, yet he gratiously dismissed him, and being providently attentive to his affaires above his age, with great commendations for his clemency hee set forth a publike pardon to all those that had intercepted him if they would crave it within a time prescribed. But so farre were they from asking it, that they secretly plotted to intercept him anew. Whereupon they were commanded to depart the Realme within a time prefixed; of whom Marre, Glames, the commendators of Driburg, Pasles, and others, betooke themselves into Ireland; Boyd, Zester-Weime, Lochelaine into the Low-Countries; and Dunfermelin into France. The Earle of Anguse was confined within certaine limits in Anguse. Only Goury hatching new tumults stayed beyond the prefixed time, to his ruine, as we will shew.
9. Thus they which expelled Lenox against his will were themselves before the yeare came about, against their wills expelled out of Scotland. The King, as he loved Lenox whilest he lived, so being dead he had him in gratefull remembrance, and restored his good name which by his ill-willers had beene blemished, suppressing the infamous libells against him. His children he sent for out of France, his sonne Lewis he made successor in his fathers honour, and his daughters hee matched in time convenient with the Earles of Huntley and Marre. And to shew himselfe a King, and exercise his kinglie authority betymes, whereas the sayd Conspirators had in an assembly called by their owne authority, decreed their seizing on the Kings person to have beene just, and had enrolled it in the publicke records, he to the contrary in a frequent assembly of the Estates, declared the same to have beene treasonous, although the Ministers, that were supreame Judges in the Kingdome, in a Synode convocated by their owne authority, pronounced it to be most just, and thought them worthy to be excommunicate which approved it not.
10. It is not to be buried in oblivion how in these dayes the warre growing hot betwixt the Muscovite and the Swethian, under the Northerne Clmate, John King of Sweden, being unable to sustaine the power of so great an Emperor, sent Eric of Wimsbruge his kinsman, Andreas Riche one of this counsell, and Raschy his Secretary, on a noble Embassy to Queene Elizabeth, and by his letters intreated her to mediate a peace with the Muscovite by her Embassadour, which shee did without delay, and perswaded the Muscovite to a peace upon reasonable conditions. For hee now againe dealt with the Queene about the league before mentioned, and about his refuge in England if any disaster should befall him, and sued also for a wife out of England. Touching these matters, Sir Hierom Bowes Knight being sent Embassadour, could hardly satisfie him, for that the Muscovite importunately required an absolute league written in his owne words, and would not heare that it was not the part of a Christian, nor allowable by the law of Nations to exercise hostility without warre denounced, and to make warre before such time as hee from who the injury began bee warned to recompence the wrong, and to abstaine therefrom. The Queene appoynted to him for a wife the Lady Anne sister to the Earle of Huntingdon. But when shee understood for certaine that he might by the lawes of his Country put away his wives at his pleasure, shee excused it by the maydes disposition of health, and the love of her mother, who could not indure the absence of her daughter in a Country so farre remote, and for that shee had no power to match the Daughters of her subjects in marriage but with the consent of their Parents. Neverthelesse the Embassadour effected that he yeelded to confirme the Marchants priviledges; but his death insued the yeare next following, and withall the trading of the English in Russia decayed by litle and litle, and the Embassadour was sent backe, who returned, not without danger to his life, being received of the Queene with commendations, and was the first (if an historiographer may have leave to mention so small a matter) which brought into England a beast called a Machlis, not seene before in England, like unto the beast called in latine Alces, but having no joynts in the leggs, and yea most swift; and certaine fallow deere of admirable swiftnesse, which being yoaked together drew a man sitting in a sled, with miraculous speed.
11. Theodore Joannides the sonne of John Basilydes (to joyne Muscovite matters together) succeeded in that vast Empire; a prince of a duller spirit, but yet one that would harken to them which counsailed him aright. This Theodore granted to all machants of all nations free accesse into Russia; and being often times sollicited by the Queene to confirme the privileges granted by his father to the Muscovie Company of English Marchants, to weet, that none save the Englishmen of that company should come or trade in the North coasts of Russia, and that without Custome, in regard they were the first that discovered that passage thither by sea, hee now and then prayed her to give licence to all the English to traffique in Russia, for to prefer some and deny others was injustice; Princes must hold an even hand between their subjects, and not convert commerce (which by the law of nations ought to be common to all) into a Monopolie and private gaine of a few. As for his Customes, hee promised to exact lesse by the one halfe of that Company then of the rest, because they first discovered the voyage by sea. In other matters hee confirmed the former priviledges, and added a few more in favour of the Queene, and not for any desert (as he sayd) of the Company, of whom he found that many had dealt falsely with his people. And other answere then this could Giles Fletecher Doctor of Law, who was sent afterwards Embassadour in this behalfe, get none, who set forth a lttle booke on the Russian policy or Tyranny, wherein are very manie things worthy of observation. Which booke notwithstanding was quickly suppressed, least it might give offence to a Prince in amity with England.
12. Out of Polonia a Country neighbouring upon Russia, came this Summer into England to see the Queene, Albert Alasco Palatine of Siradia, a learned man, of good feature of body, a very long beard, and very comely and decent apparrell; who being graciously welcomed by her, and intertained by the nobility with great honour and feasting, and by the University of Oxford with learned delightes and sundry pageants, after foure monethes abode heere, withdrew himselfe secretly, being runne farre in debt.
13. In the Country of Dorset there happened this yeare no lesse strange a sight then did in Hertforshire in the yeare 1571. For a peece of ground of three Acres in Blackmore removed out of his place with trees and hedges, and went over other land, leaving a mighty pitt, and stopping up an high way leading to Cerne. Whether this happened through such a boysterous winde under ground, wherewith Seneca writeth that the heads of the gods were turned backeward in Jupiters Lectisterne [couch], or of much moisture, the springs boyling up plentifully, considering that the ground lay upon a shelving hill, let others search.
14. This was the last yeare of Thomas Ratcliffe the third Earle of Sussex of that family, of singular faithfulnesse to his Country, of very noble descent, as whose mother was the Duke of Norfolkes daughter, his grandmother daughter to Henry Duke of Buckingham Constable of England. Who having runne through highest honours, being sent Embassadouir into Germany by Queene Mary to the Emperour Charles the 5th about the marriage to be contracted with Prince Philip, and afterwards into Spayne to the said Prince Philip about ratifying the covenants thereof, and to the Emperour Maximilian about Queene Elizabeths marriage with Charles of Austria, having beene Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord President of the North Countryes of England, Lord Chamberlaine to the Queene, Chiefe forester of England beyond the River of Trent, renowned for his victories against the Hebridians, and the Scotts which infested the borders, at length having strived with a long sicknesse, dyed at London without issue (though hee had married two wives, Elizabeth Wriothesley and Francis Sidney), and had his brother Henry for his successor.
15. This yeare also dyed Henry Wriothesley Earle of Southampton, a man of all others most devoted to the Romish Religion and the Queene of Scotts, for which he incurred his Princes displeasure and indured imprisonment in the Tower. He was sonne to Thomas Wriothesley (whom for his singular vertue King Henry the 8th advanced to the dignity of Baron Wriothesley of Tichfielde, to the Order of the Garter, and to the highest honour of Chancellour of England, and made him one of the Curators of his last Testament; and Edward the 6th raised to the honour of Earle of Southampton). This Henry left by his wife the daughter of Antony Vicount Montacute Henry his onely sonne and successor, and a daughter married to Thomas Lord Arundell of Wardour.
16. Almost at the same time was swallowed up by the Ocean Sir Humfrey Gilbert Knight, a sharpe and lively spirited man, famous for his knowledge in warre and peace, in his returned from the North part of America, which we call New-found land, whither hee had sayled a litle before with five shippes, having sold his patrimony in hope to plant a Colony there. But after he had by the voyce of a cryer proclaimed that Country to belong to the English jurisdiction (for Sebastian Cabot was the first that had discovered in theyeare 1497 by the meanes and setting forward of Henry the 7th) and had assigned landes to every man of his company, hee was distressed by shipwrackes and want of necessary provision, and constrained to give over his enterprise, learning too late, and teaching others, that it is a matter of greater difficulty to transport colonies into farre countryes upon private mens wealth then he and others in a credulous error perswaded themselves to their owne cost.
17. About that time dyed also Edmund Grindall Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate and Metropolitan of all England, being blind and above 60 yeares of age. A religious and grave man, who returning from banishment under Queene Mary, was made first Bishop of London, afterwards Archbishop of Yorke, and lastly Archbishop of Canterbury, and flourished in great grace with the Queene, untill by cunning practises of his adversaries hee quite lost her favour, as if hee favoured the conventicles of the turbulent ministers and their prophecyes (as they called them), but in truth because hee had condemned an unlawfull marriage of Julio ,an Italian Phisitian, with another mans wife, while Leicester in vaine opposed against his proceeding therein. The small wealth which hee had gathered hee bestowed uppon the founding of a Schoole at Saint Bees in Cumberland, where he was borne, and for the advancement of learning in both the Universities. And to his care (if I may mention so small a matter) are the Englishmen beholden for Tamarisk, which he having found by experience to be marveilous good to ease the indurate passion of the spleen, brought in first of all others into England.
18. In his roome succeeded John Whitgift, being translated thither from the See of Worcester, an excellent and most learned man, who gained singular commendations both by Justice in the Vice-presidentship of Wales, and by maintayning the doctrine in the Ecclesiasticall policy of England, which he dayly increased by is fortitude, prudence, and patience. To him the Queene (who as in civill matters, so also in the ecclesiasticall lawes, thought that no relenting was to be used) gave in charge that before all things he should restore the discipline of the Church of England, and the uniformity in the service of God established by authority of Parliament, which through the connivence of the prelates the obstinacie of the Puritans, and the power of certeine noblemen, was runne out of square, while some of the Ministers covertly impugned the Queenes authority in ecclesiasticall matters, separated the administration of the Sacraments from the preaching of the word, usurped new rites and ceremonies at their pleasure in private houses, uttlerly condemned the Liturgie and the administration of the Sacraments established, as contrary in some poynts to the holy Sciptures, as also the vocation of Bishops, and therefore refused to come to Church, and made a flat scisme, while the Papists stood at pleasure, and drew many to their side, as if there were no unity in the Church of England. To take away these inconveniences, and retore unity, hee propounded these articles to be subscribed unto by the Ministers. First, That the Queene had the highest and supreame power over all persons borne within her realmes, of what condition soever they were; and that no other foreine Prince or Prelate had, or ought to have, any civil or ecclesiasticall power in her realmes and dominions. Secondly, That the booke of Common Prayer, and another booke for ordeining of Bishops and Priests, conteined nothing contrary to Gods word, but might lawfully be used; and that they should use that and no other forme either of prayer or administration of the Sacraments. Thirdly, That they approved the Articles of the Synod of London, published by the Queenes Authority in the yeare 1562, and believed the same to be consonant with Gods word. By occasion hereof incredible it is what controversies and disputations arose, and what hatred, what reproachful speeches he endured at the hands of factious Ministers, and what troubles, yea and injuries also at the hands of noblemen, who by promoting unmeete and unworthy men, raised trouble in the Church, or else hoped after the livings of the Church. Neverthelesse through constancy, fortitude, and patience, he overcame at last, and restored peace to the Church. So as not without good advisement he may seeme to have usurped that motto, VINCIT QUI PATITUR, that is, He overcommeth which suffereth with patience.
19. And not onely these men troubled the Church at home, but also some which proceeded from these did the like abroad, namely Robert Browne a Cambridge man, a young student in Divinity, of whom the new sectaries were called Browniste, and Richard Harison a pety schoolmaster. for these two presuming but of their owne spirit to judge of matters of Religion, by bookes set forth at this time in Zeland and dispersed all over England condemned the Church of England as no Church, and intangled many in the snares of their new schisme, notwithstanding that their bookes were suppressed by the Queenes authority and soundly confuted by learned men, and that two of the Sectaryes, one after another, were excuted at Saint Edmunds Bury.
20. On the other side some Papists bookes against the Queene and Princes excommunicate drew some which had the Popes power in great reverence for their obedience, and amongst others they so distracted one Somervill, a gentilman, that in haste he undertooke a journey privily to the Queenes Court, and breathing nothing but blood against the Protestants, he furiously set upon one or two by the way with his sword drawne. Being apprehended, hee professed that hee would have killed the Queene with his owne hands. Whereupon he, and by his appeachment Edward Ardern his wives father, a man of very ancient gentility in the County of Warwicke, Ardern’s wife, their daughter Somervill, and Hall a Priest, as accessaries, were arrraigned and condemned. After three daies Somervill was found strangled in prison; Arderne, being condemned, was the next day after hanged and quartered; the woman and the Priest were spared. This woefull end of this gentleman, who was drawne in by the cunning of the Priest and cast by his own testimony, was commonly imputed to Leicesters malice. For certaine it is that hee had incurred Leicesters heavie displeasure, and not without cause, against whom hee had rashly opposed himselfe in all hee could, had reproached him as an adulterer, and detracted him as a new upstart.
21. These things at home. But aborad, the English which lay in garison at Alost a towne of Flanders, being neglected, and having neither pay nor victualls, were the last moneth of this yeare driven to these extreamities that Pigott, who had the command of them, and the rest of the Captaines, breaking their fidelity, betrayed the Towne for money to the Spanyards, and fearing the disgrace thereof amongst their owne Countrymen, joyned themselves with the Prince of Parma; from whom notwithstanding, for that they found no faithfulnesse in him, they fled litle by litle. But the authors of this treachery came every one of them to an unfortunate end. Pigott went into Spaine in hope of reward, but being derided he returned againe into the Low-Countries, where he was taken by his own Countreymen and sent into England, and dyed miserably in prison. Dalton of a traitor, becoming a pirat, was hanged in England, and Vincent in Brabant. Taylour was runne through the body by the Earle of Westmorland, and Walsh, after he had been tossed with a thousand miseries, was slaine in France. This Gods vengeance followeth traitors at the heeles, as Ireland this yeare saw by examples more apparent.
22. For that infamous rebel and traitor to his Country, Girald Fitz-Girald, or Giraldides, the eleventh Earle of Desmund of this family, when his men were consumed with famine and sword (which had barbarously vowed to forsweare God before they would forsake him), and when hee had escaped the hands of the victorious English almost two yeares by lurking in uncertaine corners, was taken by a common soldier found in a little cottag, and unknowne, till having his arme almost cut off, he discovered himselfe; and was slaine being runne thorough the body in many places. His head was sent over into England, and set upon a pole upon London bridge.
23. Such end had this most powerfull man in Ireland, who derived his pedigree from Maurice Fitz-Giralde of Windsor, an Englishman, most renowned amongst the first Conquerours of Ireland in the yeare 1170. He had goodly lands and possessions, yea whole provinces, with Kerry a County Palatine, and very many Castles, and a number of tenements, and adherents, and of his owne stocke and sirname had about five hundred gentlemen at this devotion. Of all which, yea and of his life also, he was dispoyled within three yeares, very few of the family being left, after he had broken his alleagance to his Prince thorough the perswasion of certain Priestes. Amongst whom the chiefest of all was Nicholas Sanders an Englishman, who almost at the same instant was most miserably famished to death, when being forsaken of all company, and troubled in minde for the adverse successe of the rebellion, hee wandered up and downe through woods, forests, and hills, and found no comfort. In his pouch were found certaine orations and epistles written to confirme the rebels, stuffed with large promises from the Bishop of Rome and the Spanyard. Thus the divine Justice (if a man may judge) stopped that mouth with hunger, which had been alwaies open to raise rebellions, and to belch out malicious slaunders with lyes. For (to omitt other things) he was the first of all others that broached that abominable lye against the birth of Queene Elizabeths mother, which no man in these days in the fresh hatred of the Papists against her ever knew, England in full forty yeares after never heard, the computation of times doth most manifestly convince of falshood and vanity, and hee forgetting himselfe (which behooveth not a lyer to doe) doth plainely confute. Yet are there some ill-advised people which blush not at this day to distayne their writings with this so impudent a lye.
24. James Fitz-Eustance, that is, the sonne of Eustace, Vicount Baltinglas, a man of great estimation amongst the Lords of Ireland, being terrified with the unhappie fate of these men, fled into Spaine, where hee miserably languished in sorrow. Who had a litle before in zeale to the Romish Religion taken armes with the rebels against his Prince, and writing with obscure brevity to the Earle of Ormond his neighbour (who draweth his descent from Saint Thomas of Canterburies sister) amongst other words wittingly exhorted him to doe the like for the Romish Religion, in these words: Had not blessed Thomas of Canterbury dyed for the Church of Rome, thou haddest never beene Earle of Ormund. For to expiate the murther of the said Thomas, King Henry the second had in former times given to his ancestors large possessions in Ormond.
25. Sir John Perot Knight, who had borne the office of President of Munster with commendations, being this yeare made Vice-Roy, or Lord Deputy of Ireland, as soone as he had received the sword, summoned the Estates of the realme to a Parliament, wherein certaine Lawes were made; and Desmund, which was lately slaine, was condemned of high Treason, and all the lands as well of him, as of the other rebels in Munster, confiscate. Which when the Queene had resolved to leasse out at a very easie rate, to the end to invite farmers thither, that those most fruitfull fields might not lye unmanured (for the rebellion had brought a miserable desolation), some of those which were commanded to inquire after the possessions of the rebells, and others which hired lands, began to turne the faithfull subjects out of their possessions with such violence, that the Queene was faine to restraine them by Proclamation, least the violent avarice of private men should kindle a new flame of rebellion. Wherein the Lord Deputy did worthy service, though hee were now and then blamed by the English, as more favourable to the Irish and harder to the English. But he by ministring justice indifferently, and favoring the Irish equally with the English, restored the Country by litle and litle to a most wished peace, and by a peaceable power subjected the fiercest of the inhabitants under the lawes. The Hebridian Scotts which had broken into Ireland out of the isles, he grievously afflicted. Donnell Gormi, that is, The Blew, and his brother Agne Mac-Conell, which had seized upon Glimes a small country, and Surly Boy, that is, The Tawney, their uncle, which had invaded Rout a neighbouring tract neere the Isle of Richea, now Racchlin, he drove to those straits; having through the fortitude of Captaine Meriman slaine very manie of that family that they sware alleagiance to the Queene, and received from her by intreaty and suite certaine lands in that corner, upon conditions to serve the Kings of England onely in their warres, and none else without their licence, to send certaine horse and foot upon expeditions, and pay a certaine number of beeves and hawkes every yeare. These things in Ireland.