- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1578
ALTHOUGH he Spaniard were not very well pleased to heare the matters which Wilkes propounded, and disssembled the matter (as I sayd a little before), yet Queene Elizabeth seriously pittying the Netherlanders, whose Provinces by the great commodiousnes of the scituation, and mutuall friendship, had adhered unto England many Ages, and therefore not induring that the French by undertaking their protection should gripe them into his possession, sent the same Wilkes at his returne out of Spain to Don John of Austria, to give him secret warning that the Duke of Anjou (for so he was now called, who was before Duke of Alencon) was invited by the Estates with an army of Frenchmen, and therefore it was his latest course to contract a truce, least he exposed the Provinces to present hazard. But he being of a fierie and martial spirit, and puffed up with pride for a successefull battaile fought against the Estates at Gemblours, answered in one word, that he neither minded a truce, nor feared the French. Neverthelesse Queene Elizabeth being attentive to her owne good, and the good of the Netherlands, sent Sir Edward Stafford into France, to espie whether there was any stirring in the borders of France towards the Netherlands, and what leavies there were of men.
2. Out of England were now gone over the Seas John North, the Lord North’s eldest Son, John Norris the Lord Norris his second Son, Henry Cavendish, and Thomas Morgan Colonels with very many Voluntaries, to lay the first foundations of military discipline. Casimier also the Elector Palatines Son, drew downe an army of German horse and foot into the Netherlands, at the great charges of the Queene. Don John burning in desire to charge upon the Estates Campe at Rimenant, or to provoke them to battell before all their succors were come together out of France and Germany, posted thither sooner then was expected, and when the horsmen that stood centinell presently gave backe, he pursued them with an hot and furious charge, as if he were assured of the victory. But they soone resumed their courage and repulsed Don Johns men. Who, turning aside, indeavoured to breake through certaine Hedges and coverts, where the English and Scottish voluntaries were quartered, but could not, being most manfully received by the English and the Scots, who, throwing off theyr cloathes by reason of the great heat, fought in their shirts trussed up between their thighes. Norris the Generall of the English, fighting very valiantly had 3 horses slain under him, and got great commendation in this battell by his martiall valor, as did also Stuart a Scottishman, Bingham, Lieutenant to Cavendish, and William Markham.
3. To comfort and relieve these Netherland Provinces afflicted with civill warres, there came thither from the Emperor the Count Swartzenberg, from the French King Monsieur Pompon de Bellieure, and from Queene Elizabeth the Lord Cobham and Sir Francis Walsingham, to procure means of peace. But they returned every one without effecting any thing, for that Don John would by no means admit of the reformed religion, and the Prince of Aurange flatly refused to returne into Holland.
4. About that time Edgremond Ratcliffe, Son to Henry Earle of Sussex by his second wife, a man of a turbulent spirit, and one of the chiefe in the rebellion of the North, who served under Don John, was accused by the English Fugitives as if he had beene sent over privily to murther Don John, and was taken in the Camp at Namur, with one Grey an Englishman as accessary to the plot, and both of them executed. The Spaniards give out that Ratcliffe at his death confessed volontarily that he was delivered out of the Tower of London, and excyted by Walsingham with great promises to commit the fact. The English that were present, deny that he made any such confession, though the fugitives did what they could to extort such a confession from him. But mindes differing in religion doe too too much obscure the light of honesty and truth on both sides, and who knoweth not that fugitives doe devise many things out of hatred, and a desire to slander and backbite?
5. At that very instant, Don John in the flowre of his age, resigned his fond ambition, together with his life, by force of the Pestilence, or as some say, of griefe because he was neglected by the King his brother after he had gaped first after the Kingdome of Tunis, whereby Guleta or Coletta in Africa was lost, and then after the Kingdome of England; and had secredly made a Confederacie with the Guises, without the privity of the French King and the Spaniard, for the defense of both Crowns.
6. The Duke of Anjou in the meane time, though his mind were bent upon the Netherland warre, yet to shew that he could attend both Martiall and love matters both at once, prosecuteth his marriage with Queene Elizabeth, which he had begun to sue for whilst he was Duke of Alencon. At first Bacherville, being sent for this cause, came to the Queene in her progresse at Melford, Cordall’s house in Suffolke; shortly after came Rambolette from the French King; and lastly, after a moneth came Simier from Anjou, a most choyce Courtier, exquisitely skilled in love toyes, pleasant conceipts, and Court-dalliances, accompanied with many of the Nobility of France, whom the Queene entertained at Richmond so kindly that Leicester now chafed, being quite frustrate of his long hope of marriage. And indeed a little before when Astley one of the Queenes bed-chamber covertly commended Leicester unto her for an Husband, she being in a chafe said, Dost thou thinke me so unlike my selfe, and unmindfull of my royall Majestie that I would prefer my servant, whom I my selfe have raised, before the greatest Princes of Christendome, in the honor of an Husband?
7. Almost at the same time, Margaret Douglasse Countesse of Lenox, neece to King Henry the 8th by his eldest sister, and widow of Mathew Earle of Lenox, and Grandmother to James King of Great Britaine, having over-lived eight children which she had borne, passed into her Heavenly Country in her Climatericall yeare, and was buried at Westminster with a stately Funerall at the Queenes charges. A Matron of singular piety, patience, and modesty, who was thrice cast into the Tower (as I have heard her say her selfe) not for any crime of treason, but for love matters. First, when Thomas Howard Son of Thomas Howard the first Duke of Norfolke of that name, falling in love with her, dyed in the Tower of London; then for the love of Henry Lord Darly, her Son, to Mary Queen of Scots; and lastly, for the Love of Charles her younger Son, to Elizabeth Candish Mother to the Lady Arbella, with whom the Queene of Scots was accused to have procured the Marriage, as I have said already.
8. Now to give a touch of Scottish matters. About the beginning of this yeare Thomas Randolph was sent by Queene Elizabeth into Scotland to espye in what state the affaires of Scotland stood, to congratulate to the King his Progresse in learning (which by reason of this singular towardnesse, and most excellent memory, was certainely very great even above his age), and to winne his mind unto the English, by laying open the Queenes kindnesses towards him, and the motherly affection she bare him; and to deale with Argile that the Hebridian or wilde Scots might not ayde the Rebels in Ireland; and also to perswade Morton the Regent to give over with all speed his enmities begun with Argile, Athole, and others, least he procured the hatred of the Nobility against him, and quite alienated the Queenes mind from him. He was now privily accused to have stained the commendations of his wisedome and fortitude with the foule blot of avarice; and in short time grew into such generall hatred, that by joynt consent of the Estates the government was translated from him to the King, though in respect of his age not so capable thereof (for he was then scarce twelve yeares old), and twelve of the chiefe Nobilty, to bee assistant by course to the King with their counsaile, every three moneths three of them; and amongst them Morton himselfe, that they might seeme to leade him downe, not to throw him downe.
9. The King having taken upon him the government, forthwith by Dunfermelyn acknowledged with most gratefull remembrance the benefits of Queene Elizabeth towards him, as proceediang not so much from neerenesse of bloud, as from their common profession of the true Religion. The confederacie of Edinburg made between both Kingdomes in the yeare 1559, he prayed might be ratified, the better to restraine the robberies of the borderers, and prevent the practises of the adversaries of the true Religion, that true Justice might be ministred indifferently betweene the people of both Kingdomes, that full restitution might bee made of goods taken by piracy, and that his ancient Patrimony in England (to wit the Lands and possessions granted to Mathew and Margaret his Grandfather and Grandmother), might be delivered into his hands as next Heyre, for now the revenewes of the Kingdome of Scotland being much diminished, he had need of mony to provide for his houshold, and maintaine a gaurd answerable to his royall dignity.
10. These former matters the Queene readily promised; but for this concerning his Patrimonie she shewed her selfe more hard to be intreated. And yet she would not harken to those which affirmed that the Lady Arbella Daughter to Charles the Kings uncle, and borne in England, was next heyre to the lands in England; neither yet would she heare the Embassador, who out of the credit of hystories shewed that the Kings of Scottes borne in Scotland had in ancient time succeeded without question by right of inheritance to lands in England, in the County of Huntingdon, and earnestly besought her that she would not deny to a Prince her neerest Kinsman the priviledge of Citizens, which she had often granted to forreigners unknown. But the rents of those lands she commanded to be sequestered by the Lord Burghly Master of the Wards; and admonished the Embassador that the King should satisfie his Grandmothers creditors out of the Earl of Lenox his lands in Scotland. For she took it unkindly that the King after the death of Charles, had revoked an infoefment of the Earledome of Lenox, made to Charles his unckle and his heyres, and that in prejudice (as was suggested) of the Lady Arbella, though by the priviledge of the Kings of Scots, it is alwayes lawfull for them to revoke all grants and donations hurtfull to the realme, and made in their minoritie.
11. The Councell of England were of opinion that the confederacie of Edinburgh needed not to bee confirmed, as that which stood already firme and sure. They required the Embassadour to propound somewhat which might in some part recompence the Queenes benefits towards the King (which had not spared the Englishmens bloud in his defence) and might strengthen the amitie betwixt them. Hereupon hee out of his instructions propounded that a League might be made, not of Offense, but of Defense and mutuall ayde against the Byshop of Rome and his Confederates, upon certaine conditions against the invadors of both Kingdomes, and against the Rebels in regard of Religion. Over and above this, the English thought it reasonable, that seeing the Queene neyther had omitted, nor would omit any thing for the Kings defence, and for that cause had incurred great displeasure among many, the Estates of the Realme of Scotland should give her security that the King should not during his minority make or renew any confederacy with any other, contract marriage, or be sent over out of Scotland without the privity of the Queene. But these things, as being matters of great importance, were by the Scots put off to another time to be exactly and circumspectly considered of.
12. In the meane while Morton, presuming upon his own wit (which certainely was very sharpe), and upon his long experience and number of adherents, while hee thought nothing to be well done which hee did not himselfe, and could not endure not to be the same as he was, resumed unto himselfe the government, neglecting his Colleages, and sleighting the prescribed manner of government; the King he deteined in his own power within the Castle of Sterlyn, and at his own pleasure, either excluded or admitted whom he listed. Wherewith the Nobility being incensed, set up the Earle of Athole for their head, and made proclamation in the Kings name that as many as were above fourteene yeares of age and under threescore should meet together with their weapons and victuals for fifteene dayes, to set the King at liberty. And meete they did in great number, and marched with banners displayed to Fawkirk, where Morton with his forces opoposed himselfe against them. But Sir Robert Bowes, the English Embassadour, by his mediation and propounding of reasonable conditions stayed them from fighting. And Morton soone after, as if he were weary of imployments, withdrew himselfe to his owne house; and not long after, dyed the Earle of Athole, not without suspition of poyson. Which some incensed minds against Morton layed hold on amongst other things, as a matter to draw him into hatred, and ceased not to persecute him (as we will shew), till they had quite overthrowne him.
13. In Ireland there occurred this yeare no memorable matter. But for invading of Ireland and England both at once, and deposing of Queene Elizabeth who was the strongest Bulwarke of the reformed Religion, both the Spaniard, and Gregory the 13th Byshop of Rome had their secrets and designes, serving their owne private respects under the vizard of restoring Religion: the Pope that hee might get the Kingdome of Ireland for his Son James Boncompagnion, whom he had made Marquesse of Vineola; the Spaniard, that he might privily under-hand relieve the Irish Rebels, as Queene Elizabeth had succoured the Netherlanders, whilest amity in words was kept on both sides, as also that he might (if it were possible) by the Popes authority possesse himselfe of the Kingdom of England, and thereby the easier reduce the Netherland confederates into order; whereof he despaired unlesse hee were master of the Sea; and this he saw could not bee unlesse hee were first Master of England. And there is no doubt but as hee oweth the Kingdomes of Naples, Sicily, and Navarre to the bounty of the Pope, so would he also very gladly have holden England of him as an homager.
14. These two, who knew that the greatest strength of England consisted in the royall Navy, and the Marchant ships, which were both built and furnished for Sea-fight, thought it good that the Italian and Low-Country Marchants should by one colour or another hire the most part of these Marchant Ships for long voyages, and while they were farre off, the royall Navy should be surprized and vanquished by a greater Fleet, and that at the same time Thomas Stukely an English Fugitive, of whom I have spoken before in the yeare 1570, should with a power of men joyne with the Rebels in Ireland. He, being a subtle old foxe, had by his magnificall ostentations of himselfe, and by promising the Kingdome of Ireland to the Popes base Sonne wound himselfe into such favour with the ambitious old man, that he honoured him with the titles of Marquesse of Leinster, Earle of Wexford and Caterlaugh, Viscount Morough, and Baron of Rosse (places these are of good reckoning in Ireland), and gave him the command of 800 Italians leavyed at the Spaniards charge and pay for the Irish Warre. With whom hee putting to Sea from Civita Vechia, arrived at length in Portugall, at the mouth of the River Teio; where the more potent power of the divine Counsaile frustrated these designes against England and Ireland.
15. For Sebastian King of Portugall, to whom was committed the principall command and managing of this expedition into England (for that he swelling with youthly heate and ambition, had not long before promised his whole helpe and assistance to the Bishop of Rome against the Mahometans, and the Protestants), was with great promises allured to the warre of Africa by Mahomet the Sonne of Abdalla King of Fesse, and dealt with Stukely to accompany him, first with those Italians into Mauritania. Stukely was easily perswaded (for that the Spaniard disdaining that the Popes Sonne should be designated King of Ireland, was not unwilling to it), and went with Don Sebastian into Mauritania, and in that memorable battaile, wherein three Kings, Sebastian aforesaid, Mahomet, and Abdal-Melech were slaine, finished the enterlude of a loose life with an honest Catastrophe or conclusion.
16. Had not this fatall end of Don Sebastian diverted the Spaniards mind from the Invasion of England to the hope of the Kingdome of Portugall, the greatest storme of the warre (if any credite may bee given to the English fugitives) had light upon England. For they write that those huge forces with the Spaniard had now begun to leavy in Italy to be powred forth upon England were stayed for the winning of Portugall. Neither could he be perswaded (being wholly bent upon the Conquest of Portugall) so much as once to think of England, though the English fugitives most importunately urged him thereunto, and the Bishop of Rome promised him an hallowed Banner or Crosse for this as for a Sacred warre. But when it was knowne by certaine intelligence that Stukely and his Italians were slaine in Mauritania, and that the Spaniard set his mind upon nothing but Portugall, the English Fleet which waited for Stukeley and his Italians upon the Coast of Ireland was called home; and Sir Henry Sidney resigned his charge to Sir William Drury President of Munster, when he now at severall times beene Lord Deputy eleven yeares; and when he was ready to take shipping, hee bade Ireland farewell with that verse out of the Psalmes, When Israell departed out of Egypt, and the house of Jacob from amongst the barbarous people. A singular good man he was, and one of the most commendablke Deputies of Ireland, to whose wisdome and fortitude Ireland cannot but acknowledge it selfe very much indebted, though for the most part it complaineth of the Deputies.