- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1579
JOHN Casimir Sonne to Frederick the third Elector Palatine, who had the last yeare some what too late, ledde a strong army of Germanes into the Netherlands, to the great charges of the Estates and Queene Elizabeth, and had performed nothing, beiing drawne by the mutinous Ganthois into theyr partie, came into England in the moneth of January in a sharpe and snowy Winter, to excuse himself of the frustrating of his expedition, laying the blame upon the French. Where hee was most Honourably received, and conducted with great pompe into London with Torch-light by the Lord Maior, the Aldermen and people of the Citie, and to the Court by the chiefe of the Nobilitie, where hee was delighted with Tilting, Barriers, and sumptuous banquets, honoured with the Order of Saint George, the Queene her selfe buckling on the garter about his leg, and after the gift of a yearly pention, and very many rich presents, he returned in the midst of February into the Netherlands, being carried in one of the Queenes shippes, where he found that mercenary army dissolved. For when Alexander Farnese Prince of Parma, who was appointed by the Spaniard to the government of the Netherlands, was ready to fall upon the Germans, and they lacked their pay, after a small skirmish and losse of men them demanded money of him to depart out of the Netherlands; of whom when he againe demanded imperiously but pleasantly money that they might depart with their lives, they were content with their pasport, and made hast home, not without dishonor to themselves and greater damage to the Estates. Queene Elizabeth notwithstanding failed not the Estates, but furnished them with a great summe of money; for which William Davison (who was sent a little before to compound the Commotions of the Ganthois, who raged against Churches and Churchmen), brought into England the antient jewels and rich plate of the house of Burgundye, mortgaged by Matthias of Austria and the Estates.
2. In the meane while Simier ceased not amorously to wooe Queene Elizabeth, and though she stiffly refused the marriage a long time, yet he drew her to that passe that Leicester (who from his heart opposed the marriage) and others spred rumours abroad that by amorous potions and unlawfull arts hee had crept into the Queenes mind and intised her to the love of Anjou. And Simier on the other side left no meanes unassayed to remove Leicester out of place and grace with the Queene, revealing unto her his marriage with Essex his widow; whereat the Queene grew into such a chafe that she commanded Leicester to keepe himselfe within the Tower of Greenwich, and thought to have committed him to the Tower of London, which his enemies much desired. But Sussex, though his greatest and heaviest adversary, who wholly bent himselfe to set forward the marriage with Anjou, disswaded her, whilest out of a sound judgement and the innated generousnesse of his noble mind hee held opinion that no man was to bee molested for lawfull Marriage, which amongst all men hath ever been honest and honoured. Yet glad he was that by this marriage he was now out of all hope of marying with the Queene. Neverthelesse, Leicester was so incensed herewith that he bent himselfe to revenge the wrong he had received. And there wanted not some which accused him as if hee had suborned one Teuder of the Queenes guard, an hackster [assassin], to take away Simier’s life. Certainely the Queene commanded by publique Proclamation that no man should wrong Simier, his companions or servants, in word or deed. At which time it happened that while the Queene for her pleasure was rowed in her Barge upon the Thames neere Greenwhich,with Simier, the Earle of Lincolne, and Hatton her Vice-chamberlaine, a young man discharged a Piece out of a Boat, and shot one of the Bargemen in the Queenes barge through both his armes; who was soone apprehended, and led to the gallowes for a terrour to him; but whereas hee religiously affirmed that he did it unwittingly, and thought no harme, hee was discharged. Neither would the Queene beleeve that which some buzzed in her eares that he was purposely suborned against her or Semier. So farre was she from giving way to suspicion against her people, that shee was many times wont to say, That shee could believe nothing of her people, which Parents would not beleeve of their Children.
3. Some few dayes after, the Duke of Anjou himselfe came privily into England with one or two in his company, and came unto the Queene at unawares in her Court at Greenwhich, where they had their close counsailes together, all standers by being removed, which I list not to search into (for the secrets of Princes are an inextricable labyrinth), and so hee returned being seene but of a few. But after a moneth or two shee commanded that Burghley Lord Treasurer, Sussex, Leicester, Hatton, and Walsingham, after serious consideration of the dangers and commodities which might arise from her Marriage with him, should consult with Simier about the writings of marriage. The dangers seemed to be, least he should attempt any thing against the received Religion; least hee should invade the possession of the Kingdome either for himselfe by the Popes donation, or betray it into the hands of the Queene of Scots, and marry her after the Queene were dead; or else after his Brothers death returne into France, and impose a Vice-roy upon England, which the English would by no meanes indure. Moreover, least he should ingage the English in foraigne warres; least the Scots, presuming upon the auncient League with the French, should take greater courage against the English; least the Spaniard should oppose himselfe against so great a power; and lastly, least the people being burdened with payments for the maintainance of his greatnesse and state should raise rebellions. The commodities seemed to be these, that a firme Confederacie would bee established with the French; that the rebellions of the Papists (if any should be) would be the sooner suppressed; that all hope would be cut off from the Queene of Scots, and from all those which sought to her for Mariage, and which favoured her; that the Spaniard would be brought to compound the matter of the Netherlands, and confirme the League of Burgundy; and England might at length injoy a sound and joyfull securitie by meanes of the Queenes Children so often wished for. But if this Mariage should be neglected, they feared least the French would be incensed, the Scots alienated, Anjou would contract marriage with the Spaniards Daughter, with whom hee might receive the Netherland Provinces in dowry, the French King and the Spaniard would ayd the Queene of Scots, draw the King of Scots to their partie, procure him a wife for their owne turne, and utterly abolish the Reformed Religion; and the English, when they saw no hope of children by the Queene, would adore the Sunne-rising. Wherewith she could not but bee tormented with anguish of mind, and languish even to death.
4. As in these dayes some English feared an alteration of Religion by meanes of the Duke of Anjou, so also did the Scots by the meanes of another Frenchman, Amate, or Esmee Stuart d’Aubigny, who was come at this time into Scotland to visit the King his cousin. (For he was sonne to John Stuart brother to Mathew Earle of Lenox the Kings Grandfather, and was surnamed d’Aubigny, of Aubigny in Berry, which Charles the 7th King of France gave in times past to John Stuart of the house of Lenox, who, being Constable of an army of Scots in France, defeated the English at Beauge, and was afterward slain them in the battaile Des Harrands; and ever since it hath belonged to the younger brothers of that house). This D’Aubigny the King embracing with singular kindnesse, gave him goodly lands and possessions, used him in his inwardest counsailes, made him Chamberlaine of Scotland, Captaine of the Castle of Dunbritton, and (after hee had in an assembly of the Estates, duly revoked the Letters patents, whereby he had in his pupillage created Robert Byshop of Cathnesse, his Grandfathers third brother, Earle of Lenox, and recompenced the said Robert with the Earledome of March) created him first Earle, and then Duke of Lenox. This most flourishing favour of his with the King procured him envy amongst many, who muttered that hee being a man most devoted to the Guises, and to the Romish Religion, was sent in to Scotland to subvert the true Religion. This increased the suspition that he applied himselfe to Mortons adversaries, and made intercession for calling home Thomas Carre of Fernihurst, a man of all others most addicted to the Queene of Scots, while Morton in vaine opposed to the contrary, whose power now plainly declined (though he seemed to deserve passing well, having defeated the Hamiltons, and taken the Castle of Hamilton, and Duffrane). Some there were which at this time wrought the Hamiltons into great hatred with the King, laying their name before him as a scar-crow, and molesting them in such sort, that for their owne necessary defence they maintained those Castles against the King; but they were forced to surrender them, and were convict by Parliament of the murther of the Regents as well Murrey as Lenox, and proscribed. Of these Hamiltons some fled into England, for whom Queen Elizabeth made earnest intercession by Erington, as well out of honor, as regard of Justice, forasmuch as shee in the yeare 1573, for establishing of peace, had given her word that they should not be called in question for these causes but with her consent.
5. About this time also through her intercession in another part of the world, Amurath Cham, or the Turkish Sultan, by meanes of William Harbourn an Englishman and Mustapha Beg a Turkish Bashaw, granted that the English Marchants might freely traffique throughout his whole Empire, in like sort as did the French, the Venetians, the Polonians, the King of the Germans, and other neighbour Nations. Whereupon they by the Queenes authority grew into a Societie or Company, which being called the Turky Company, have ever since had a very gainfull trading, at Constantinople, Angoria, Chio, Petrazzo, Alexandria, Egypt, Cyprus, and elsewhere in Asia, for Spices, Cottons, raw Silke, Tapestries, Indian dye, grapes of Corinth or Currants, Sope, etc.
6. There execrable impiety of Matthew Hamont, which at this time openly raged in Norwich against God and his Christ, and is (I hope) extinct with his burning alive, is rather to buried in oblivion, then to be remembered. And for my part I am of not of their mind, which thinke it expedient for the public good that all vices, poysonings, and impieties should be openly told abroad; for little better is he that relateth such things then he that teacheth them.
7. This was the last yeare of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the great Seale of England, under which title he exercised and injoyed by decree of Parliament, the honor and authority of Chancellor of England. A man exceeding grosse-bodyed, sharpe witted, of singular wisedome, passing eloquence, excellent memory, and one of the pillars of the Privy councell. In whose roome was substituted Thomas Bromley with the title of Lord Chancellor of England.
8. After Bacon followed Sir Thomas Gresham Knight, Citizen of London, the Queenes Marchant, son of Sir Richard Gresham Knight; who for an ornament to his Country and use of Marchants, built a very goodly walking place at London, named by Queen Elizabeth The Royall Exchange, and dedicated a very faire house he had in the Citie, to the profession of Learning, constituting therein lectures of Divinitie, Civill Law, Phisike, Astronomy, Geometry, and Rhetoricke, with reasonable stipends.
9. In Munster a Province of Ireland, James Fitz-Moris kindled a new flame of Rebellion; the same James which before, falling downe upon his knees before Perot President of Munster, had with lamentable howling and humble prayer begged his pardon, and most religiously vowed his fidelitie and obedience to the Queene. This man I say (who had no rest but in troubles) had withdrawne himselfe into France, promising the King that if he would ayde him, he would joyne all Ireland to the Scepter of France, and restore the Romish Religion in the Isle. But being wearied with delayes, and in the end derided, hee went out of France into Spaine, and made the same promises to the King Catholike. The King sent him over to the Bishop of Rome, from whom having (by the earnest sollicitation of Sanders an English Priest, and Allen an Irish, both of them Doctors of Divinitie) gotten a little money, Legative authority committed to Sanders, an hallowed Banner, and letters of commendations to the Spaniard, he returned into Spaine, and from thence arrived about the first day of July, with those two Divines, and three ships, and a small power of men, at St. Mary Wick (with the Irish contractedly call Smerwick) in Kerry a Chersonesse or byland [peninsula] of Ireland, where in a place solemnly consecrated by the Priests hee erected a fort, and drew up his ships close under it; which ships Thomas Courtney an English Gentleman who lay by chance at anchor in a ship of warre in a rode hard by, soone after set upon, tooke and carried away, and shut out the Spaniards from the benefit of the sea. John and James brethren to the Earle of Desmund, gathering together a few Irish, joyne themselves forthwith with their cousin Fitz-Moris. But the Earle himselfe, who highly favoured the cause, gathered his men together under colour as if he meant to resist them, having cunningly shifted off the Earle of Clancary, who was comming unto him with a choyce power of men against the enemies and rebels.
10. As soone as the Lord Deputy had certaine intelligence that the Enemies were landed, he commanded the Earle of Desmund and his brethren joyntly by Henry Davill, an English Gentleman and a stought souldier and with the Desmunds very familiar, that they should forthwith assault the forte. Which when they by shifting off the matter refused to doe, as being full of danger, Davill departed, and John Desmund followed after him. At Trally a small towne he overtooke him lying in a Inne, and in the dead of the night, having corrupted the host, brake into his chamber with certaine murderers with swords drawne, where Davill slept securely with Arthur Carter Lieutenant to the Marshall of Munster, a most stout old Soldier; but being awakened with the noise, when hee saw John Desmund in the Chamber with his sword drawne, he raised himselfe up saying, What is the matter, my son? (for so he was wont to call him familiarly). I will be no longer thy son (said he) nor thou my father. Thou shalt die. And withall they slew both him and Carter that slept with him, stabbing them in many places, after that Davils lacky boy by interposing his naked body, had done the best he couild for a while to defend his master, and had received some wounds. Then he slew all Davils servants one after another, who were lodged here and there in severall chambers; and so returning all begoared with bloud, he vaunted among the Spaniards of the murther; and Let this (said he) be a pledge unto you of my faithfulnesse towards you and this cause. This fact Sanders commended as a sweet sacrifice in the sight of God. James Fitz-Morris misliked the manner of the murder, and wished rather it had been done by the way then in his bed. The Earle, when he heard it, condemned the fact, detesting it with all his heart.
11. The Spaniards, when they saw a small number of Irish joyn with them, and those unarmed and silly fellowes, contrary to that Fitz-Morris had promised, began to misdoubt themselves and cry out that they were undone, and to bewaile their fortune, for they saw no way to escape neither by Sea nor land. Fitz-Morris exhorteth them to awaite patiently, assureth them that there are great forces comming to their ayde, and colourably undertaketh a journey to Saint Crois of Tipperary under pretence of paying a vow he had made in Spaine, but indeed to gather together seditious fellowes out of Conache and Ulster.
12. Whilest he with a few horsemen, and twelve on foot, tooke his journey through the Lands of William a Burgh his Kinsman (who in the former rebellion conspired with him), and his Horses tyring, tooke some out of the Ploughes neere the High-way, the ploughmen making an outcry, call together the neighbour people to recover their horses, amongst whom the sons of William a Burgh, being young men of courage, took horse, and pursued him so hard that they overtooke him. Fitz-Morris espying Theobald a Burgh and his Brethren, who not long before had bin rebels with him, spake to them friendly. Cousins (saith he) let us not strive for a jade or two. I doubt not when ye understand the cause why I am returned into Ireland, ye will joyne your selves in company with us. Theobald answered, Of our former rebellion my selfe, my father, and mine, doe greatly repent us. Our fidelitie and obedience wee have sworne to our most gracious Princesse, who hath pardoned us ouir lives; and to her will we keepe our allegeance. Therefore restore us our horses, or I will make you restore them. And withall charging his Launce he ranne at him. They fought a while, and Theobald and one of his brethren with some of his were slaine; and withall, Fitz-Morris himselfe fell downe dead, being runne through with a Launce and shot into the head with a leaden bullet, and most of his men slain. His head was cut from his body, his body quartered, his quarters set upon Poles at the Gates of Kilmarick, where had formerly (as I said before) with great obtestations sworne alleageance to his Prince, in the Church before Perot. The Queene by her letters most full of sorrow and love comforted William a Burgh for the losse of Sonnes, honoured him with the title of Baron of Castle Conell, and gave him a yearely pension; whereby the old man beeing replenished with suddaine joy, dyeth shortly after.
13. Now was Drury Lord Deputie come neere to Kilmarock, and sent for the Earle of Desmond, who came before him, promised his fidelitie and obedience to his Princesse, and bound himselfe by oath to serve both himselfe in person and his, against the Rebels. Whereupon he was dismissed to gather together his men and returne to the Lord Deputie. John Desmund the Earles Brother, who was substituted to Fitz-Morris his roome among the Rebels, by ambush surprized and slew Herbert and Prise, two English Captaines, and their companies which they led, and was hurt himselfe in the face. But the Companies were made up with sixe hundred men out of Devonshire, and Perot was sent out of England with sixe ships of Warre to defend the Coast.
14. At which time the Lord Deputie, being every day more vehemently afflicted with sicknesse, was faine to retire to Waterford for the recoverie of his health, and commited both the managing of the warre and the Presidentship of Munster to Nicholas Malbey, Governor of Conacht, a worthy old Souldier. As he was departing, Desmunds wife fell upon her knees and offered him here onely Sonne and heyre in hostage for his Father. For after he was departed from Kilmarock he appeared no more, though Malbey now and then by letters put him in mind of his duty and promise; who supposing it not good to delay any time, marcheth into Conilo, a wilde or wood Country, against the Rebels; where John Desmond encountred him in a pitch’d field, with the hallowed Banner of the Byshop of Rome displayed, and most sharpely they fought on both sides. At length, when fortune favoured the valour of the English, John first betook him selfe to flight, and left his men to the slaughter, amongst whom was found Allen that Divine, who had incouraged them to the battaile, promising them victory.
15. That night the Earle of Desmund, who had stood a spectator from an hill hard by, dissembling by his Letter congratulated the victory to the President, and under colour of friendship counsailed him to remove his campe. Malbey, sending backe the messenger, commanded the Earle by his Letter come and joyne his forces with his; whom when he had in vaine expected the space of foure dayes, he marched forward to Rekel a small Towne of Desmund. Now Desmund, who had so long in countenance and words egregiously played the dissembler, giveth over that part, and openly putteth on a rebellious mind; and the same thing the Rebels charge Malbey’s campe by darke, which notwithstanding they found so strongly fortified that they retired without effecting any thing. The President, forasmuch as the place seemed commodious to separate the rebel forces, put a Garrison therein, and marched from thence towards Asketten, a Castle of the Earles upon a Rocke compassed about with the River Asketten, and strengthned with a power of men. Yet before he would assault the same, he wrote againe to Desmund and exhorted him not to undergoe the blot of Rebellion, but to returne to his duty, laying before him the Queenes bounty, the ancient Dignity of the house of Desmund, the glory of his Ancestors, and his owne infamy amongst posterity. He on the contrary both hardeneth his mind with obstinacy and strengtheneth his campe on every side both with the newe come Spaniards and with the Irish. At which time in the beginning of October, Drury Lord Deputy dyed at Waterford, a man certainly of approved vertue, and bred up in the warres even from his youth in France, Scotland, and Ireland.
16. The Lord Deputy being dead, Malbey’s authoritie in Minster dyed also, who placing his soldiers in garison townes, retired into Conacht, his own government. But the Lord Deputies death the rebels take courage, and consult how to free themselves from the command of the English. The best course (they thought) was, to beset the garisons round on all sides, and to famish them. James Desmund therefore besieged Adar, where William Stanley and George Carew had their station; but the garison souldiers, fearing hunger the extreameth of all evils, wearied the besiegers with so often sallyings forth, that they brake up the siege and left the besieged liberty to gather booty in the Countrey adjoyning; which they lustily and stoutly performed, wounding James himselfe.
17. In the meane time the Councell of Ireland chose Sir William Pelham for Justicer of Ireland, with the authority of Lord Deputy, till a Lord Deputy should be created. And the Earle of Ormond they made President of Munster, who sent the Earle of Desmund’s sonne, whom he had in hostage, to Dublin to be kept. Pelham Lord Justicer went into Munster, and sent for the Earle of Desmund; but hee sending letters by his wife, excused himselfe. Ormond therefore was sent to warne him to deliver Saunders the divine, the forreine souldiers, and the Castells of Carigo, Foyle, and Asketten into the Lord Justicers hands, to submit himselfe absolutely, and turne his forces against his bretheren the rest of the rebels; which if he did, he might obtaine pardon of his rebellion, otherwise he should be proclaimed traytor and enemy to his Countrey. When he by shifting avoided to do it, he was in the beginning of November proclaimed traytor and guilty of high treason, for that he had dealt with forraigne Princes for the conquest of his country, had relieved Saunders and James Fitz-Morris Rebels, had harboured the Spaniards which had escaped out of the Fort at Smerwick, had hanged the faithfull Subjects, displayed the Popes banner against the Queene, and had brought forreigners into the Realme. This being proclaimed, the Lord Justicer committed the prosecution of the warre to Ormond. Desmund turned himselfe against another part of Munster, surprised and sacked Yoghall a Coast towne strongy fortified, while no man resisted him. Ormond layeth all wast far and wide all over Conilo, being the Rebels onely harbour, driveth way their Cattell, and giveth them for bootie to his men. The Major of Yoghall he commanded to be hanged before his doore, for that he had refused to receive an English garison, and manneth the towne with a garison. Then he prepareth to besiege the Spaniards in Strangicallia; but they had before withdrawne themselves from the danger. Yet the English pursuing them put every man to the Sword, and most grievously afflicted the Rebels all over Munster. But Desmund and his brethren, though lurking and hiding their heads, signified to the Lord Justicer in a long letter that they had undertaken the protection of the Catholike faith in Ireland, and that by the authority of the Byshop of Rome and the direction of the King Catholike; and therefore they doe kindly advise him to joyne with them in so pious and meritorious a cause for the salvation of his owne Soule.