- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1577
DON John of Austria, when hee found himselfe too weake for the Estates of the Netherlands, beeing of themselves very strong, and backed also with the amitie of theyr Neighbour Princes, sent Gastelle to Queene Elizabeth, to thanke her for the ayde offered him against the French, and to declare unto her his forward affection for peace. She by Sir Edward Horsey, who was now sent the second time, commendeth his affection to peace, and withall treated that the Englishmens goods stayed at Andwerp may be restored. Slowly was answere made hereunto, because hee was much letted [obstructed] (as he pretended) with other cares, being wholly busied about a Perpetuall Edict of Peace (as he called it) which nothwithstanding scarce lasted a yeare. Queene Elizabeth being seriously most desirous of a Peace, sent Sir Thomas Leighton to the Prince of Aurange, to perswade him to attempt nothing against the peace till Sir Thomas Smiths returne, who was sent to the Spaniard to procure a peace. The Prince of Aurange who from his heart contemned that Perpetuall Edict, had now heard in fit time, that Don John cast in his minde to marrie with the Queene of Scots; which he gladly layed hold on, and by Famier presently acquainted Queene Elizabeth therewith, to divert her minde from the Peace. Yet shee, as if she understood it not, congratulated to Don John by Daniel Rogers the perpetuall Edict of Peace, though she knew now for certaine that Don John through the perswasion of the Earle of Westmerland and the English fugitives, and the forward favour of the Byshop of Rome and the Guises, had already swallowed in hope the said marriage, and withall, the Kingdomes of England and Scotland; and had now determined to seize upon the Isle of Mann in the Irish Sea, as commodious to invade England out of Ireland, and from the West Coast of Scotland, where the Queene of Scottes had very many devoted unto her, as also in the opposite part of England, namely Northwales, and the Counties of Cumberland, Lancashire, and Cheshire, where the greatest part of the Inhabitants were most addicted to the Popish Religion.
2. And certainly Don John (as we have learned out of Perez, who was Secretary to the Spaniard), being before this time transported with ambition when he was disappointed of his hope of the Kingdome of Tunis, had dealt privily with the Byshop of Rome, about deposing of Queene Elizabeth, marrying the Queene of Scottes, and conquering of England, and had so farre prevailed without the privitie of King Philip, that the Pope, as it were out of a desire of the publique good, excyted King Philip to Warre against England, and Don John himselfe, being readie to goe into the Netherlands, prosecuted the same in Spaine, and afterwards made suite by Escovedo, who was sent out of the Netherlands, that some Port Towne might bee granted him in Biscay, from whence he might invade England with a Fleet. But King Philip ,mislyking these projects, began to neglect the man as too ambitious. And these things Queene Elizabeth never perfectly understood, until (as I said) the Prince of Aurange had informed her hereof.
3. It was not without suspition also that Thomas Copley one of the prime men among the English Fugitives, being commended to the French King by Vaux, Don Johns Secretarie, had received from him the Dignity of Knighthood and title of Baron. Yet Copley laboured to remove from himselfe all suspition, protesting obedience towards his Princesse, and that he had received the title to no other intent, but that the greater honour might acrew to his wife being his consort in his exile, and the larger pension to himselfe from the Spaniard, forasmuch as Noble men with a title are in better reckoning amongst the Spaniards, and the title of Baron he thought did belong unto him in right, whose Grandmother was eldest Daughter of the Lord Hoo, and his great Grandmother the eldest Daughter to the Heyres of the Lord Welles.
4. Don John in the meane time secretly prosecuted the said Mariage, and withall, to cloake the matter, sent the Viscount of Gaunt in Embassage to Queene Elizabeth to shew unto her the conditions of the Peace, and to request a longer day for the payment of the mony which the Estates had borrowed. To this latter she willingly granted, and dealt with him againe by Wilson, for recompence of damages done to the English Marchants at the sacking of Andwerp. He deluded her and while hee seemed to plye the Perpetuall Edict of Peace, brake forth into Warre, surprized Townes and Castles by craft, and wrote to the Spaniard that the best course was to assaile the Ilands of Zealand before he set upon the innermore Provinces; and, inclining to his owne hopes, he went about to perswade him by Escovedo his Secretarie that England might easilier be wonne then Zealand.
5. Heereupon, when all things in the Netherlands tended to Warre, the Estates sent the Marquesse of Haures and Adoph Metherk in Embassage to Queene Elizabeth, to borrow of her a hundred thousand pound sterling for eight Moneths. To whom shee answered that if they could borrow it any where else, shee and the City of London would very willingly give securitie for it, so as certaine Townes of the Netherlands which she should name would become bound to repaye the money within a yeare. A Confederacie also was contracted with the Estates of mutuall ayde by Sea and Land, upon these conditions. The Queene shall send in ayde to the Estates one thousand Horse and five thousand foote, whose pay and charges the Estates shall defray at London the third moneth after they take Shipping; and after the war ended they shall send them backe at their charges into England. The Generall or Commander of this Army, being by Nation an Englishman, shall be admitted into the Councell of the Estates. Nothing shall be determined concerning Warre or Peace without acquainting the Queene or him. They shall enter into no league with any whosoever without her approbation; and in the same, if shee will, she shall be comprehended. If any Prince do attempt any hostility against the Queen or Kingdome of England under any pretext whatsoever, the Estates shall to their power resist him, and shall send succours of men to the Queene in the same number and upon the same conditions. If any discord arise amongst the Estates, it shall be referred to the Queenes arbitrement. If any Fleet to be rigged and prepared by the Queene against her Enemies, the Estates shall furnish forty Ships of reasonable burden with Saylers and all necessaries, which shall be under the command of the Admirall of England, and shall serve under the Queenes pay. The Estates shall in no wise receive into the Netherlands such Englishmen as the Queene shall proclaime Rebels. If they make peace with the Spaniard, they shall procure these Articles to be confirmed withall, or apart by themselves, at the Queenes choise.
6. Presently after this confederacie was made, the Queene, least shee should be calumniated as if she fostered the Rebellion in the Netherlands, sent Thomas Wilkes to the Spaniard to informe him as followeth: That forasmuch as there were not lacking some ill disposed persons which sought by cunning practises to breake off amities betweene Princes, and by unjust backbitings to blot her reputation, as if shee gave fire to the Netherlandish combustions, First, shee prayeth the King, and the Governours of the Netherlands, to call to mind how often and how earnestly shee had long agone friendly fore-warned them of the mischiefes hanging over the Netherlands; And then when they cast in their mindes to revolt, how carefully shee laboured by often messages to the Prince of Aurange and the Estates to keepe them in their duty and Obedience to the King; Yea, when those most wealthy Provinces were offered into her possession, how sincerely shee not so much as tooke them into her protection; And lastly, when all things were in a most desperate and deplorable state, how largely she supplyed money that the Estates might not upon urgent necessity subject themselves under another Prince, and interrupt the designe of Peace very lately before propounded. And when shee heard that the Prince of Aurange would not imbrace the Peace that was made, shee not onely advised him to imbrace it, but also (as she most religiously protesteth) did by threat in a manner commaund him. Whether these bee things unworthy of a Christian Princesse that is affected to Peace, and most desirous to deserve well of her confederate the Spaniard, let the Spaniard himselfe and all Christian Princes judge. And now, that the warres may bee stilled, and hee may have the Netherlanders most obedient to him, shee admonisheth him to receive his afflicted people into former grace, restore their Priviledges, keepe the Conditions of the last Peace, and substitute another Governour of his owne family. Which things could not (as shee signified) bee effected, unlesse Don John were removed, whom the Estates distrusted with hatred more than hostile and implacable; and whom shee her selfe knew for certaine by his secret practises with the Queene of Scots to bee her most mortall Enemy, insomuch as shee should expect nothing out of the Netherlands but assured perils, as long as hee was Governour there. But now, when shee saw how great forces Don John had leavied, and how many auxiliary Companies of French were in a readinesse, shee professeth that to preserve the Netherlands to the Spaniard, and avert the danger from England, shee had promised assistance to the Estates. Who had reciprocally promised that they would persist in the Kings Obedience, and innovate nothing in Religion. But if shee perceived that the King would not accept of these things, but resolved to breake the barres of their priviledges and right, and to draw the miserable Provinces into servitude, as taken by right of Warre, shee could not faile both to defend her neighbours and provide for her own security. And if the Estates would shake off their Alleageance towards their King, and attempt any thing contrary to that they have promised, shee would forthwith turne her Forces against them.
7. These things hee was not very willing to heare. But yet for that hee knew there was in Queene Elizabeth very much importance eyther to compound or disturbe the affaires of the Netherlands; and understood also for certaine that there was a plot layd by Don John against her, hee dissembled the matter, and withall prayed her to hold on her purpose of making a Peace, and not rashly beleeve false rumours spred abroad, or that hee attempted any thing unworthy of a Prince in amitie with her.
8. Whilest Wilkes layeth open these things in Spaine, Don John of Austria sent Gastelle to Queene Elizabeth (whom at once he both feared, and wished her confusion), and grievously accused the Estates, laying fowle crimes and aspersions upon them; and declared the causes at large why he armed his men againe. Thus sate she as an heroicall Princesse and Umpier, betwixt the Spaniards, the French, and the Estates; so as she might well have usurped that saying of her father, cui adhaereo, praeest, that is, The partie to whom I adhere, getteth the upper hand. And true it was which one hath written that France and Spaine are as it were the scales in the ballance of Europe, and England the tongue or the holder of the ballance.
9. In these dayes, while the Judges of Assizes sate at Oxford, and one Rowland Jenkes, a fowle-mouthed bookseller, was indited for slaunderous words against his Princesse, the greatest part of those which were present, whether through a poysonous and pestilent vapour, or the stinkes of the prisoners, or dampe of the ground, were taken in such sort that they dyed almost every one within forty dayes or thereabouts, saving the women and children, and none else touched with the contagion. Amongst those that dyed were Robert Bell Lord chiefe Baron of the Exchequer, a grave man, and famous for his knowledge in the law, Sir Robert D’oiley, and Sir William Babington, Knights, D’Oiley, Sheriffe of Oxfordshire, Harcourt, Weneman, Pheteplace, men of great note in this tract, Barham an excellent Lawer, almost all the Jury (as they call them) and others to the number of 300 or thereabouts.
10. Till this time a faire calme weather shone upon the Papists in England, who through a certaine mercifull connivence had their owne service of God in their private houses in a manner without punishment, although it were prohibited by the Law, a pecuniary mulct being inflicted; neyther did the Queene thinke that their consciences were to bee forced. But after such time as that thunderbolt of Excommunication was shot forth at Rome against the Queene, this faire weather vanished by little and little into clouds and tempests, and drew forth a law in the the yeere 1571 against those should bring into the realme such Bulls, Agnus Deies, and blessed graines, privy tokens of Papall obedience, or should reconcile any man to the Church of Rome. Yet was there no man in full sixe yeares proceeded against by that Law, though some were apprehended which had faulted against it. The first that was convicted by this law was one Curthbert Mayne a Priest, who was put to death at Saint Stephens fane (commonly called Launston) in Cornewall; and Trugion, a Gentleman who had harboured him, was turned out of his Estate and condemned to perpetuall imprisonment. But these and such like Ecclesiasticall matters I will but lightly touch, because others there in hand with the Ecclesiasticall Hystory of these times, and I trust with sincere faithfulnesse, though scarce to be hoped for, from exulcerate mindes in this difference of Religion.
11. This yeare the title of Lord Latimer, after it had flourished with great honour and wealth in the house of the Nevils, from the dayes of King Henry the sixth, was extinct in John Nevil, who having begotten no heyre male, left a rich inheritance to foure Daughters; whereof the first was marryed to Henry Earle of Notherumberland, the second to Thomas Cecyl who was afterwards Earle of Excester, the third to Sir William Cornewallis, and the fourth to Sir John Davers; from which Daughters hath issued a plentifull progenie.
12. Sir Thomas Smith also, one of the Queenes Secretaries, dyed of a consumption, a man worthy to bee remembered for his manifold learning, and wisedome in many Embassages. Borne hee was of honest Parentage at Saffron-Walton in Essex, brought up in Queene Margarets Colledge in Cambridge, and at riper yeares selected to be sent into Italy at the Queenes charges. (For even to our dayes certaine young men of the best hope out of both the Universities were maintained in foraigne Countries at the Kings charges, for the more plentifull polishing of their wits.) From thence he returned with the title of a Doctour of the Civlll Law, and found such favour with the Duke of Somerset Protector to King Edwrd the sixth, that he was made one of the Kings Secretaries next after Cecyl, Steward of the Stannaries, Deane of Carleol, and Provost of Eton Colledge, whereof he deserved passing well. Queene Mary deprived him of these dignities, assigning him a hundred pounds a yeare pension for life, howbeit with condition that he should not depart the Realme. As soone as Queene Elizabeth enjoyed the Scepter, he was called againe to the service of the Common-wealth, and was present with the Divines at the amending of the English Liturgie, and afterwards performed with commendations those Embassies whereof I have spoken in their proper places. In the yeare 1571, being made one of the Queenes Secretaries, he sent his base Sonne being all the Sons he had, to lead a Colony into Ardes a byland of Ireland, who dyed there unfortunately, as I have said. He was very beneficiall to the state of learning in England, by a law concerning Corne for Colledges of Students which he had first procured; and indeed more beneficiall then by writings, though he left a worke unperfected, of the Common wealth of England, a singular booke of the Orthography of the English tongue, another of the pronunciation of the Greeke, and an exact Commentary of mony matters most worthy to be published. In the Office if the Queenes Secretary was substituted next after him Thomas Wilson Doctor of Law, Master of St. Catharines neere London, who departed his life within foure yeares.
13. In Ireland the O-Moores and O-Conors, and others, whose ancestors Sussex Lord Deputy had in the raigne of Queene Mary, for their misdeeds, turned out of their patrimonies in Leise and Ophale, and had assigned them no other place to live in, brake forth into rebellion, Rory Oge, that is Roderic the younger, being their leader; the Towne of Naas they fiered, Lachlin they assaulted, but being repulsed through the valour of George Carew the Governour, they intercepted by a guileful parley Henry Harrington and Alexander Cosbey; whom when Harpoole a Captaine of a Company undertooke to recover, and set upon a Cottage by night, in which Rory was, having them bound to a poast, Rory being awakened with the uprore, wounded Harrington and Cosbey with redoubled blowes in the darke, and being desperately hardy escaped by the benefit of the night, through the middest of the soldiers which had beset him. But within a few dayes after, when hee lad layed a trap for the Baron of the upper Ossery, he was intercepted himselfe and cut in peeces, thereby freeing the neighbour people from feare.