- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1576
IN the beginning of the new yeare, those two marriage-brokers Mota Fenelon and Porte began againe to tickle Queene Elizabeths eares with Love-baites about her marriage with Alencon. To whom it was answered that it was now out of season, when Alencon could not come, France beeing embroyled with civill Warres, and Alencon deepely engaged therein. Yet was there one or two sent into France to renew the brotherly Love betwixt the King and Alencon and to disswade them from the affaires of the Netherlands, least the Spaniard should raise new combustions of Warre in France. And to deterre the French King from the Netherlands, shee put him in minde how easie a matter it would be for the Spaniard, who was now most fully provided of all munition for Warre in Italy, either to seize upon Saluzes, or to set forces on land in Province, and make himselfe Master of the Coast of the Mediterranean Sea, France being so exhausted of wealth; and other such like matters she warned him of.
2. For the Prince of Aurange, for his owne private respects, and in hope to retaine the principalitie of Aurange, which is scituate in France, ceased not to invite the French into the Netherlands, and promised the Zealanders and Hollanders (who infested the Seas round about with their pyraticall vessels, being men borne as it were in the Sea) to robbe the English Marchant ships, whom they accused to carry victuals to their Enemies the Dunkirkers, and to transport the Marchandize of the Andwerpers and others into Spaine under counterfeit names, which they were wont themselves to export, to their own commodity, and now durst not being guilty of their revolt. For restraining of these, Holstock being sent forth againe with ships of Warre, tooke above 200 Pirates, and put them in prisons all along the Sea Coast. But to demaund restitution of goods, there were sent into Zealand Sir William Winter Knight, and Robert Beale Clarke of the Councell, to consider of the value of the things in controversie, and make restitution upon certain condition to be agreed on. But through the avarice of the English Marchants, and the insolencie of the Zealanders, the variances were renewed again, which were shortly after compounded with the losse of both Nations.
3. In the Netherlands all things were now most confused, whilest the Spaniards without authoritie thrust certaine Counsailors of the Estates into prison, and committed all outrages against the Country, rifeling their goods and doing them all kindes of injuries, in such sort that the Estates were driven of necessitie to take armes. And forthwith they sent abroad their Messengers to all parts, and by Obigny signified the injuries to Queene Elizabeth, and the causes of their taking armes. The Queene by Doctor Wilson earnestly exhorteth both the Estates and the Spaniards to lay downe armes, and carefully searcheth out the causes why the Estates Counsailors were committed. In the meane time Andwerp, the most excellent of all Cities, which scarce yeelded to any the most flourishing Mart townes of all Europe, was miserably sacked by the Spaniards, the house of the English Marchants spoyled and rifeled, and they (though guiltlesse of all blame) constrained to pay the Souldiers a great summe of Gold for their ransome. Obigny, laying hold on this importunitie, importunately craved to borrow a great summe of money of Queene Elizabeth in the Estates name, to restraine such insolence of the Spaniards. The Queene, who had received certaine intelligence that they had formerly craved mony of the French King, denyed him, but promised to make most diligent intercession to the Spaniard for a peace. And in that behalfe she sent into Spaine Sir John Smith, cousin German to King Edward the sixth, a man of Spanish gesture, and well knowne to the Spaniard; who being most graciously entertained by the King, retorted with such wisedome the disgracefull injuries of Gaspar Quiroga Archbyshop of Toledo against the Queene in hatred of her religion, and of the Inquisitors of Civil [Seville], who allowed not the attribute of Defender of the Faith in the Queenes title, that he received thankes from the King, who was somewhat displeased with the Archbyshop, and prayed the Embassadour to conceale the matter from the Queene, and straightly commanded the said attribute to be admitted. For he knew the Queenes advice to be expedient for his affaires, though he followed it not, the fate of the Netherlands (if I may so speake) thrusting him forward to run another course.
4. At this time was come into the Netherlands, with supreame power to governe the same, Don John of Austria, base or naturall Sonne to the Emperour Charles the fifth. To whom the Queene in like manner sent Sir Edward Horsey, Captaine of the Isle of Wight, to congratulate his comming, and offer him ayde in case the Estates should call the French into the Netherlands. But Swevingham making most importunate suite of the Estates, she sent over unto them twenty thousand pounds of English mony, upon condition they should neither change their religion nor their Prince, nor receive the French into the Netherlands, nor refuse a Peace, if Don John of Austria would condiscend to reasonable conditions. And that if he did embrace peace, the Spanish Souldiers should be satisfied with the said mony, who mutined for lacke of pay. So carefull was she to retaine the wavering Provinces in their fidelitie and obedience to the Spaniard, that she omitted no occasion of deserving well of him, and preserving peace.
5. In England there was in these dayes a generall joyfull tranquilitie, and the traffique betwixt the English and the Portugals opened againe, which through the private avarice of certain persons had of late beene barred; and it was permitted unto the English to trade in Portugall, Algerbe, the Isles of Madera and the Azores, and the Portugals in England and Ireland, for the tearme of three yeares. In which time the controversies about deteinings of Marchandizes might be debated. And this was proclaimed by the publicke voyce of the Cryer.
6. Some learned wits also, being kindled with an honest desire to discovere the most remote regions of the world and the secrets of the Ocean, excited well monyed men no less inflamed with a desire of having, to discover if there were any straight in the North part of America, through which men might sayle to the rich Country of Cathay, and the wealth of the East and West might bee conjoyned by mutuall commerce. These learned men argued probably that there was a Straight open on that part, taking it for granted that the nearer the shore a man commeth, the shallower are the waters. But they which sayle from the West Coast of Island find by experience the Sea to be deeper, so as it may seeme to joyne unto that Sea which the Mariners call Del Sur, on the other side of America. Then, that whereas the Ocean is carried with the dayly motion of the Prtimum Mobile, or the uppermost Heaven, being beaten backe by the opposition of America, it runneth Northward to Cabo Fredo, that is, the cold cape or Promontary, about that place, it should be empyred [disgorged] through some straight, into the sea Del Sur; or otherwise, it would be beaten backe with the like violence upon Lapland and Finmarch, as it is in the South part of the world beaten backe from the straight of Magellan (a straight full of Isles, and by reason of the narrownesse of the straight being full of Iles, uncapable of so great a quantity of waters), along the East Coast of America to Cabo Fredo. For witnesses they bring Athony Jrnkinson an Englishmen, then whom no man had fuller knowledge of the North part of the world; who hath shewed that an huge quantity of waters must needs be powred forth out of the Cronian or frozen Sea into the Sea Del Sur; also Bernard Le Torr a Spaniard, who hath affirmed that he, returning from the Isles of the Moluckaes into America, was driven backe again to the Moluckaes by force of Waters rushing against his ship from the North, when hee was about the Aequator Northwards; and other things they alledged for proofe hereof. Wherewith those monyed men being perswaded, sent Martin Forbisher with three Pinaces to discover this straight, who setting from Harwich the 18th of June, entred the ninth of August into a Bay or straight under the Latitude of 63 degrees, where he found men with blacke haire, broad faces, flat noses, swarty coloured, apparelled in Sea-calves skinnes, the women painted about the eyes and bals of the cheeke, with a blew colour like the ancient Britaines. But for that all was so frozen with Ice in the moneth of August, that he could not hold on his voyage, he returned, and arrived in England the 24th of September, having lost five sailers whom the Barbarians had intercepted. Neverthelesse, the two yeares next following, he sailed to the same Coasts to finish his enterprize; but being incountred every where with heapes of ice like Mountaines, he was kept from winning any farther into the bay. Beiing therefore tossed up and downe with fowle weather, snowes, and unconstant windes, he gathered a great quantitity of stones, which he thought to be minerals, and so turned homewards; from which stones wheyn their could be drawne neyther gold nor silver, nor any other metall, we have seene them cast forth to mend the high-wayes. But these matters are described at large, and openly to be sold.
7. In these dayes dyed Maximilian the Emperour; a Prince prudent, just, profitable to the Empire, and one that had well deserved of Queene Elizabeth and the English. As soone as Queene Elizabeth heard the certaintie of his death, she sorrowed greatly, and sent Sir Philip Sidney in Embassage to Rodolph King of the Romans, most officiously to signifie both her griefe for his father, and her joy for his succession. And also in his way, to condole the Elector Palatines sons the death of their Father Frederick the third. And by the way also to put Casimier in mind of the mony she had disbursed in the French War. For by that Warre was peace restored to France, to Alencon were joyned for Appenage, as they tearme it, the Dukedomes of Anjou, Tours, and Berry; to Casimier were promised eleven millions of Franks for pay for his Germaine Horsemen, and some of the French Queenes Jewels were layed to pawne for three hundred thousand Crownes. But nothing at all was payed backe againe to Queene Elizabeth, who notwithstanding held her selfe fully recompenced in that it was well bestowed in a good cause. Casimier answered ingenuously, and in his German sincerity, that the French King had failed of his word, and that it was not long of him that the mony was not repayed.
8. As in Germany the Emperour Maximilian and the Elector Palatine, Princes of Christian vertue, left a great misse of them in regard of singular moderation, so in England and Ireland, Walter D’Evereux Earle of Essex left no lesse, though in degree far inferiour unto them. A very excellent man certainely hee was, in whom honesty of manners strived with nobility of birth; both which notwithstanding could not prevaile against Envie. For after he was constrained to give over his laudable enterprize in Ireland, he returned into England, having much wasted his patrimonie, where openly threatning Leicester, whom he suspected to have done him injuries, he was by his cunning Court tricks, who stood in feare of him, and by a perculiar mysterie of the Court, to strike and overthrow men by honours, sent backe againe into Ireland with the vaine Title of Earle Marshall of Ireland. Where pining away with griefe and sorrow, he piously rendred his soule to Christ, daying of a flux with most grievious torments, after he had prayed the standers by to warne his Sonne, being then scarce ten yeares old, to set alwayes before his syes the sixe and thirtieth yeare of his age as the uttermost scope of his life, which neither he nor his Father had passed, and his Sonne ever attained unto, as in proper place we will shew. This death of so noble a man was not without suspicion of poyson amongst the vulgar sort (who alwayes suspect them to be poysoned whom they hold deere), although Sidney Lord Deputie of Ireland, after diligent inquisition made, wrote to the Council in England that the Earle as soone as he tooke his bed said many times that this was a thing peculiar to him, that whensoever he was sicke and perplexed in minde, he fell into the bloudy flux, and that he suspected no poyson, and that his body retained the same colour in his sicknesse which it had in his perfect health, no spot, no infection, no shedding of the haire nor of the nayles, and being bowelled no signe at all of poyson; but the Phisitians agreed not well together, yet applyed they nothing against the force of poyson; but that he who waited on his Cup was falsely accused of infusing * * * in water, and mingled it with his wine. Yet have we seene the man openly pointed at for a poysoner. This increased the suspition that Leicester presently with mony and great promises put away Douglasse Shefeld (whether his Paramour, or his wife I cannot say) on whom hee had begotten a Sonne, and now openly showed love to Letice Essex his Widow, to whom afterwards he joyned himselfe in a dubled marriage. For though it was reported that hee thad taken her to wife secretly, yet Sir Francis Knolles, who was father to Letice, and was acquainted with Leicesters straying loves, would not beleeve it (fearing least hee should delude his daughter) unlesse hee might see the wedlock knit in his owne presence, with some few witnesses and a publicke notary. But these things were done a yeare or two after.
9. At this time ended his life in England Sir Anthony Cooke Knight, a man of seventy yeares of age, grave severity, and manifold learning, having beene Schoole-master to King Edward the sixt in his childhood; a man happy in his daughters, whom having brought in learning of Greeke and Latine above their sexe, hee married to men of great note, namely, to Sir William Cecyl who was Treasurer of England, Sir Nicholaus Bacon Lord Keeper, and Sir Thomas Hobbey who dyed Embassadour in France, Sir Ralph Houllet, Sir Henry Killegrew.
10. Before Essex his death (to returne a little backe), the Earle of Clan-Richard’s sonnes, who scant two moneths before had obtained of the Lord Deputy a pardon for their Rebellion, gathered together againe a rabble of lewd fellowes, and cruelly practised their robberies and depredations all over Connacht; the Towne of Athenry, which the inhabitants were now about to repaire, they burnt, and put the workemen to sword, out of a barbarous hatred against the inhabitants, who had begun to conforme themselves to lawes and civility. But upon the Lord Deputies comming, their theeving troopes were dispersed, and fled after their wonted manner into their lurking-holes, and the Earle of Clan-Richard himselfe their Father was thrust into prison at Dublin as accessary to their crimes. The Lord Deputy being returned backe, they crept out of their holes, and in vaine besieged Balla-Reoth Castle with losse of men, being their Fathers chiefe seate, wherein a garrison was put, under the command of Thomas Strange. The lands of Mac-William Eughter, that is, the younger, they wasted, joyning unto them the Iland-Scottes. But at the coming of the Lord Deputy, they vanished againe hiding themselves in their holes.
11. Sir William Drury, who was late Marshall of Barwick, being now newly made President of Munster, by his wisdome and fortitude brought the whole Countrey to subjection and obedience to the Lawes, save only the land and County Palatine of Kerry, whither as into a sincke many malefactors, theeves, men in debt, and suspected of capitall crimes, had resorted, growing insolent, presuming upon a kind of impunity by reason of the priviledge of the place. For King Edward the third had granted to the Earles of Desmond All royalties which the Kings of England had in that County, except fiering, rape, forestall, and Treasure found. The President notwithstanding, who judged that those Royalties were graunted for the preservation of Justice, and not for impunitie of offences, entred thereinto, resolutely put to flight the choisest Companies of those lewd people, which Desmund has placed in ambush, hunted out the malefactors all over Kerry, and severely punished many of them, while Desmund fretted, and made a most grievous complaint to the Lord Deputie against Drury, both of this, and of the payment which they <call> Ceass. This payment is an exaction of victuals, that is, a custome of paying Corne yearly, for the maintenance of the Lord Deputies household, and the garison Souldiers. Hereof not onely he, but also in Leinster, the more civill part of Ireland, the Lord Vicount Baltinglass, the Barons of Delvin, Hoth, and Trimleston, and all the better sort of the Nobility and gentry complained, refusing to pay it, as not to be exacted but by authority of Parliament. They which were sent in this behalfe from them into England were heard by the Councell of England, and committed to prison; and in like manner were those in Ireland which sent them, till they did submit themselves, forasmuch as it appeared by the Records of the Kingdome that it had beene instituted of ancient time, and that it was a certaine priviledge of Majestie (which they call the Royall Prerogative) which is not subjected under the Lawes, and yet is not repugnant to the Lawes, as the learned in the Lawes have judged. But the Queen commanded that the Lord Deputy should use a moderation in such exactions, by that old proverbe that she would have her Subjects While they powled not to be flayed. And it is reported that she said, Ah, how doe I feare least it be objected to us concerning the Irish, which was objected in old time to Tyberius by Cato concerning the Dalmation Commotions: You, you it is that are in fault, which have committed your stockes not to Shepheards but to Wolves.