- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1573
WHEN the Spanish proceedings in the Netherlands were very much encumbred and impeached, Vlushing being lost, the Townes of Holland revolting, and the Spanish Fleete (wherewith the Duke of Medina-Caeli was commanded with Vitelli Chapine to ayd the Papists in England) overthrowne by the Zelanders, the Duke of Alva beganne even against his will to beare a more favourable mind towards the English. In the moneth therefore of January, the traffique which had beene barred betweene the Netherlanders and the English in the same moneth of the yeere 1568 was now at length opened agayne for two yeeres, and the Articles agreed upon at Bristow in that behalfe were confirmed by the Spaniard in the moneth of June. Amongst which was this clause: And if that mutuall intelligence and straighter amity shall for a time be darkened and overshadowed, yet shall it in no wise be understood to be broken and dissolved. And if the matter cannot be compounded by Delegates within a time prescribed, The sayd intercourse after the end of the said two yeeres shall cease. And cease it did indeed by little and little before the two yeeres were expired, by meanes of the tumults growing all over the Netherlands, and a new intercourse was begunne with the Confederate Estates. But Queene Elizabeth (which turned to her exceeding great honour) satisfied to the full the dammages of the English Merchants out of the Netherlanders goods that were stayed; the rest she restored to the Duke of Alva, and made a full agreement with the Merchants of Genua for the money that was intercepted, which had given the first cause of the variance. Whereas the Duke of Alva restored not a farthing to the Netherlanders out of the Englishmens goods. And (which was more glorious, and to her subjects farre more pleasing) she discharged England at this time of the debts which her father and her brother had incurred amongst forreiners, and had beene much increased by lone, restoring now the Charters of the City of London (which had beene so often renewed) to the great rejoycing of the Citizens.
2. Yet was both the Queene, and the Ecclesticall Estate very much molested with some of their owne profession, which being inflamed with zeale of Religion, and breathing nothing but the purity of the Gospell, not onely calumniated the Ecclesiasticall policy (as corrupted with Romish dregs) both by publique and private Preaching (as also by setting forth books, which they intituled An Admonition to the Parliament and An Apology for the Admonition), but also refused to come unto the Divine service received, and framed and usurped to themselves other rites and ceremonies of God’s service, insomuch as the Queene misliking them as men of an unquiet spirit, greedy of novelties, and most forward to root up things well established, to the end to prevent a Schisme, commanded the severity of the Law concerning the uniformity of publique prayer to be every where put in execution; and the said books to be delivered into the Bishops hands, or to some of her Councell, upon payne of imprisonment, notwithstanding that John Whitgift, who was afterward Archbishop of Canterbury, had soundly confuted them.
3. There came forth also from the English rebels and fugitives a scandalous Booke entituled A Treatise of Treason, wherein they accused Bacon Lord Keeper of the great Seale, and Cecyl Lord Burghley Lord Treasurer of England, of treason against their Countrey, to worke them into hatred with the Prince and people, who by their wisedome and industry had prevented or broken their enterprises and lewd hope. And so farre was the Queene from giving credite to these accusations, that by publique Proclamation she declared them to be improbable, false, and meere slanders, and maliciously forged by the professed enemies to the true Religion and their Countrey, to no other intent then by bad and secret practises to deprive the Realme of her most faithfull Counsailors. Wherefore she warned all men to give no credite to the said libels, but to neglect them and burne them, unlesse they would undergoe the penalty to be inflicted upon favourers of sedition. Neverthelesse these books (through the naturall curiosity of men) because they were prohibited were often red, untill (as many times commeth to passe) , being contemned they grew out of request.
4. THE last yeere in the moneth of November was borne to Charles, King of France, a daughter, to whom the King requested Queene Elizabeth to be God-mother, both to retayne her the more firmly unto him by all offices of kindnesse, and also to cut off from the Protestants in France all hope of ayd out of England. For these purposes, and also to borrow money hee sent into England Alberte Gondy (commonly called Count de Rhetz), a smooth-tongued Courtier. Hee by a set speech laboured to perswade the Queene that the massacre of Paris (which some called a wicked act, but he termed a remedy) was so holtly put in execution, not in hatred of the Protestants Religion, but to breake the necke of a conspiracy plotted by the Admirall Coligny and others; yet the King would most religiously observe the Edicts of Religion. Hee besought her that shee would not open her eares to men that were clamarous and timerous without cause, but religiously keep the league lately contracted, and exhort them unto obedience to the King, whom they should find most gracious. The Queene promised to be mindefull of the confederacy, and that the King should fayle of nothing on her part, which might beseeme a most loving confederate. As for the money demanded to be borrowed, she made excuse. Neither did hee move for the money but onely in policy, to wit, that the money which she denyed to the King, she should not supply to the Protestants if they should crave it. And indeed she tooke occasion thereby to deny them money, being not unmindefull how treacherously they had dealt with her about money matters in the first Civill warre. In this Embassie Rhetz prevayled so farre that the Protestants from that time found lesse favour and helpe at her hands for a while.
5. Not long after, William Somerset Earle of Worcester was sent into France, with a font of pure gold to be present as surety or God-father in the Queenes name, with the Procurators of Mary the Empresse, and the Duke of Savoy, at the Baptizing of the French Kings daughter. Which when the Protestant Pirates, French and Netherlanders, understood (who suspected him to be one that embraced the Catholike Religion), it missed but a little but they had intercepted him in the passage over. Certainly they rifled one or two shippes of his company, killing some of the passingers. Wherewith the Queene, being sore displeased, sent forth William Holstocke, Controller of her navy, with some few shippes of warre, who scoured the seas, either taking or diving away the Pirats, and freeing some Merchants shippes out of their hands. But whereas very many of them had promised their service to Montgomery (who then lay in England) for relieving of Rochell, it came to passe that hee set sayle from England somewhat too late, and with so small a fleete, that he performed no service at all. Hereupon the French Protestants that fled into England, beeing too much incensed in hatred of the contrarie Religion, injuriously intreated ceretaine Frenchmen that came thither, yea drew their swords upon them, and amongst these, upon the Servants of Flerie, who was come privily into England from Alancon about the marriage; yea, and the Vidam of Chartres being ignorant of Fleries negotiation, accused him before the Queenes Councell, as if he had come over suborned to take away Montgomeries life.
6. On the other side, the French Embassadour complained to the Queene that Montgomerie, with the ayde of the English, had undertaken a voyage to Rochel contrary to the League, and that the English Marchants had victualled the beseiged Rochellers. To whom she answered that shee would religiously observe her faith given by the League; and as for those auxiliaries, they were Pyrates, and being outlawed, they had put to Sea without her command, and carried counterfeit flags; and she heartily wished they might bee punished. Moreover, that the English Marchants, having beene somewhat hardly used at Bourdeaux, had sayled to Rochel without her licence; that such kind of men doe sayle every where for their gaine. And withall she prayed that, in stead of Rochel, some more commodious Port in France might be assigned them for their traffique.
7. Most welcome to the French King were these answers that the Queene of England would keepe her promise, and that now shee was alienated from the Protestants of France in such sort that they looked for no helpe from her. Hereupon the French King and his Mother were better and better affected towards her, whom they perceived sincerely to embrace peace, and many Love-letters were sent unto her by Alencon from the Campe at Rochel; and all this yeare the marriage was earnestly solicited, the French King and his mother making great intercession by Mota Fenelon the ordinary Embassadour, and Chasteau-Neuf sent thither for that purpose. Certainely Queene Elizabeth was driven to serious cogitations of marriage by a double feare, in regard of lacke of children; on the one side by doubt of contempt at home, and on ther other side, by feare of attempts abroad. Against both which she perswaded her selfe, and often spake it to others, that an Husband and children would bee most strong Bulwarkes. On the contrary it was argued by some Courtiers that were attentive to their owne private, That Religion and Equitie are the strongest Bulwarkes of a Crowne against all attempts. Neither was there cause why she should feare contempt of her owne people, whose estates and hopes were fixed upon her alone, their minds knit unto her by long discent even of their Grandfathers, and their eyes every day more and more gladdened with the lustre of her vertues, and other such like speeches, familiar amongst courtiers. And when shee often used this saying, That most men neglected the Sun-setting, these flattering claw-backes ceased not to beate into her eares, Who will neglect the wholsome beames of the cleere Sunne-shine, to behold the lamentable and confused sparkeling of the smallest Starres arising together? For so they called the Competitors.
8. Meanwhile the Queene Mother intreated her againe and againe that her Sonne the Duke of Alencon might have leave to come into England to see her; who, being wearied with so many letters, at length gave her assent, conditionally, that he should hold it to be neither prejudice nor disgrace unto him, if he returned without speeding in his suit. But as soone as Queene Elizabeth had secret advertisement that Henry Duke of Anjou, his brother, was chosen King of Poland, and that the French King was sicke, she warned Alencon by Sir Edward Horsey Campaine of the Isle of Wight, not to make overmuch hast to come into England, and she added her reasons: That by reason of the massacre of the Protestants, cruelly committed throughout France for their Religion, in the middest of the nuptiall Solemnities, when hee first sued unto her for marriage, there had growne a suspicion among the Protestants in England that this marriage would prove unlucky. And the rather that for Alencon himselfe, going presently to the siege of Rochel, had written with hostile minde against the Protestants, in certaine Letters sent from thence that he would visit the Queene, when he had seene Rochel wonne; so as his rage against the Protestants Religion might seeme to be hotter then his Love towards her. And therefore very many in England suspected him, as if hee meant to come into England to sue for mariage, with a sword dyed in the bloud of those, which professed the same Religion which the English did. Wherefore she friendly and lovingly perswaded him, To procure a Peace in France, and first to declare by some notable argument his affection to the Protestants, that hee might come the more welcome Guest and Suitor into England.
9. A Peace being afterwards concluded in France, and the Protestants having their Religion allowed them in certaine places, the French King and the Queene mother againe spared no paines that the marriage might be concluded (for they would willing have had Alencon removed out of France, as a man of crabbed disposition, and rash to raise commotion). And withall they requested Queene Elizabeth, that if the Duke of Anjou should resolve to goe by Sea into Poland, he might sayle with safe conduct over the British Seas. Which she not onely most willingly granted, but also offered her Fleet to convoy him. In the meane time, Alencon fell sicke of the measils, which the Queene mother signified to Queene Elizabeth by Gondy Count de Rhetz, and excused him by his sicknesse that he came not into England. Gondy found Queene Elizabeth at Canterbury, who honourably entertained him. What time Mathew Parker Archbyshop of Canterbury celebrated the Queens birth day, to wit, the 7th of September, in amost large palace of the Archbyshops, which hee had repaired, and invited the Queene, Gondy, and Mota Fenelon, with a great number of Noblemen, feasted with them, as in the yeare 1519 the Emperour Charles the 5th and King Henry the 85th were feasted in the same palace.
10. In Scotland, James Douglase Earle of Morton was by the speciall procurement of Queene Elizabeth made Regent of Scotland in the roome of the Earle of Marre; who, having his authority established in an Assembly of the Estates, made wholesome Lawes in the Kingdome, for maintenance of Religion against Papists and Heretickes. But the custodie of the King, forasmuch as the Earle of Marre (to whom by peculiar priviledge the custodie of the Kings of Scotland in their tender age belongeth) was himselfe under age, hee confirmed to Alexander Areskyn, upon these conditions: That Papists and factious persons should be excluded from all accesse unto him; That an Earle should bee admitted with two Servants, a Baron with one onely, and all others sole, and every one of them without weapons.
11. In the meane time, the French King, sending thither Monsieur Virilac, left no practice unattempted to supplant the Regent before his authority grew strong, and oppose him against Athole, Huntley, and others, seeking to corrupt them with rewards. Queene Elizabeth labouring all shee could to the contrary, informed the Scots by Sir Henry Killegrew that the bloudy massacre of Paris was committed by a conspiracie of the Byshop of Rome, the French King, and the Spaniard, for the destruction of the Protestants. Shee warned them therefore to bee neither corrupted with French pensions, nor disjoyned by fations, thereby to open a way for forraigne forces, which Strozzi was thought to be about to bring over, but manfully to oppose themselves with joynt mindes, for the defence of Religion, which was the onely band of concord betweene the Scots and the English; and for carefull preservation of the King, or sending him into England, to the end he might not bee conveyed into France. Neverthelesse some of the Nobilitie, being sworne to the Captive Queenes party, flatly refused the authoritie of the King and the Regent, till such time as Queene Elizabeth interposing her authority, drew James Hamilton Duke of Castle-Herald, and George Gordon Earle of Huntley (who were the chiefe amongst them) to reasonable conditions by Killegrew’s meanes, to wit: That they should acknowledge the religion established in Scotland, submit themselves to the King, and also to the government of Morton and his successors in the Regencie; That they should abjure the authoritie of all others; That whosoever should attempt any thing against Religion, the King, or the Regent, should by act of Parliament bee adjudged Traitors; That the sentence pronounced against the Hamiltons and the Gordons should be repealed saving those concerning the murther of Murray and Lenox Regents, which should bee left to Queene Elizabeths pleasure. But this she referred to the King, and thought best to have it differred till the King should come to age to take upon him the government, according to the Lawes of the Land. And that all crimes committed from the 15th day of June 1567 (the murder of Lenox excepted) should be pardoned to those that sue for the same. Neverthelesse it was thought fit for the security as well of the King as of the Regent, least the Regent should be exposed to the danger of being murdered, and the King should be conveighed into France, that the Queene of England should by publicke instrument passe her word and credit that neither the Hamiltons nor any other should be called in question, or mulcted in their goods and Lands for the murther of the Regents, but with her consent. Which also was established in an essembly of the Estates, for setling of the publique quiet in a turbulent time. But these conditions William Kircalde of Grange (whom Murray the Regent had made Captaine of Edinburgh Castle, taking an oath of him in the Kings name), the Lord Hume, Lidington, the Byshop of Dunkeld, and others, who thought the Queene of Scots was hardly dealt withall, would by no means accept; but with obstinant minds, contemning the Kings authority and the Regents, held and fortified the Castle in the Queenes name, following Lidingtons counsaile, and presuming upon the unapproachable strength of the place, the munition and provision for Warre (for there was all the Kings munition kept), and the succours promised by the Duke of Alva and the French King, who had already sent some money (whereof the greater part was intercepted at Black-nesse), and more had hee not beene letted [obstructed] by the long seige at Rochel. When these men could neither by rewards offered by the Regent, nor by perswasion or threats of Queene Elizabeth, be drawne to any conditions of Peace, but needs they would maintaine the Castle against the Regent, infest the Citty of Edinburgh the Seat of Justice every day with their Ordnance and irruptions, and send for a supply of men out of France, Queene Elizabeth, who could by no meanes endure the French in Scotland, at length being intreated by the Regent, promised forces, Ordnance, and munition for the winning of the Castle, upon these conditions.
12. The Regent shall make no composition with the besieged without acquainting the Generall of the English forces, nor he likewise without consulting the Regent and the Kings Councell. If the Castle fall into the Englishmens hands, it shall be delivered up to the King within ten dayes, with all the munition, utensils, Roles and Records of the King and Realm; the rest shall fall as prey to the Assailant. The English shall fortifie no place in Scotland but with the consent of the Regent and the Nobilitie. The Regent shall yield all helpe and provision he can to the English. The besieged, after the Castle is taken, shall be reserved to be proceeded against by Law; howbeit, the Queen of England being first made acquainted therewith. If any Englishman shalbe slaine, their wives and children shall have stipends payed them for two yeares out of the Rebels goods and Lands. If any hurt, they shall have stipends likewise till they be cured. The English Ordnance, if any miscarry, the powder and shot that shalbe spent, shalbe made good out of the Kings store in the Castle, or out of the Rebels goods and Lands. And ten hostages shalbe sent into England for security for sending backe the forces and Ordnance, unlesse some common mishap of warre befall them.
13. According to these conditions, Sir William Drury Marshall of the Garrison of Barwicke, entred into Scotland, with certaine great Pieces, and fifteene hundreth men (amongs whom were these voluntarie Gentlemen, George Cary, Henry Cary, Thomas Cecyl, Henry Leigh, William Knolles, Sutton, Cotten, Kelway, William Killigrew, and others), and joyning with the Scottish auxilary power, begirt the Castle, after he had once or twice summoned the same in the Kings name, but in vaine. First, they played with their Ordance upon the Castle foure dayes together from five Mounts cast up, and especially upon Davids Tower, which after certaine dayes fell downe. Afterwards giving the assaualt, the bulkwarke called the Spurre was taken, while those which assaulted the Castle on the other side at the very same instant, were beaten off not without losse of men. The next day the besieged, giving a signe, craved a parley with Drury. They were let downe out of the Castle by a rope, Kircalde himselfe, and Robert Melvin, Henry Leigh and Fleck a Scot being in like manner received into the Castle for hostrages. They demanded that they might freely enjoy life and goods, that Humes and Lidington might in regard of the private enmities of some persons, retire into England, that Kircalde might remaine in Scotland, or if not, that he might depart with good leave. When these things would not be granted, but onely it was allowed that the souldiers might depart with bag and baggage without armes, the third day after, in regard of the small number of the garison, who were at variance amongst themselves, hurt, and spent with watchings and labour, and without hope of succour, and also for lacke of water (for one of their wells was filled up with the ruines of a Stone wall, they other lay open to the enemies great Ordnance), they yeelded themselves and all they had, the 33rd day of the siege, to Queene Elizabeth, and Drury, who upon receipt of letters out of England, tendered the Castle with all that had yeelded themselves to the Regent for the Kings use. Of whom Kircalde, James his brother, Mosman and Coky goldsmiths, who had Coyned base money in the Castle, were hanged; though for saving of Kircalds life, an hundred of the familly of Kircald offered themselves to bee ever retainers to the Regent, to pay a yearely pension of 3000 markes, and twenty thousand pound of Scottish money in hand, and security to be given that he should from thenceforth continue faithfully in the Kings obedience. Humes and the rest, being dispersed into divers Castles, were spared at the intercession of Queene Elizabeth, not without commendation of her clemencie. Lidington was sent to Leeth, where hee dyed by sicknesse, yet not without suspicion of poyson; a man amongst all the Scottes of greatest experience, and of an excellent wit, had it beene lesse wavering. In which regard George Buchanan his emulator, in a certaine writing which he entituled The Camoelion, painted him forth in his life-time, as more mutable then the Camoelion, and more sharply taxed him as a changeable coloured enemie to the Kings Grandmother, his Mother, Murray, the King himselfe, and to his Countrey. From this time Scotland tooke some breath after civill warre, and as well the heads of the parties, as the souldiers, going into Swethland [Sweden], France, and the Netherlands, gained great commendations for their martiall valour.
14. And to the end that England also might be the more secure from practises at home (for the Queene of Scottes), John Lesley Bishop of Rosse, who had served the Queene his mistresse with singular faithfulnesse, but with the undoing of some, and danger of many, was delivered out of Prison, and commanded to depart out of England; who withdrew himselfe into France, being in deadly feare of the Earle of Southampton, whom he had by appeachment drawne into danger of his life; and of Henry Howard the Duke of Norfolkes Brother, to mitigate whose displeasure hee wrote an Apologie for himselfe. Scarce was he departed the Land, when his secret Letter-carrier Henry Cockin was apprehended, and by his appeachment Morgan discovered, who being a man forward to secret designes for the Queene of Scots, and most desirous to put them in practice, presently fled. Atslo the Papists chief Phisician, and Good, both of them Doctors of Physicke, and Francis Berty, were kept in Prison certaine moneths for that they had secret intercourse of Letters with her; and for the same cause, Henry Goodyer and Richard Lowder were had in suspicion.
15. In the meane time the Byshop of Rosse omitted no duty of a most faithfull subject towards the Queene of Scots, both with the Emperour, the Byshop of Rome, the French King, and the Popish Princes of Germany, who did every one of them put him in hope, but performed just nothing. But herein hee complained that it fell out most unhappily that the Duke of Alva (in whom hee had put his greatest confidence) was now to depart out of the Low-Countries, having obtained a faire dismission under the colour of recovering his health. But in very truth the Spaniard had called him home as hee was cruelly proceeding to a Conquest (having already reduced almost all Holland under his power), the Spaniard being perswaded by Cardinall Granvill and Roderigo Gomezio de Sylva that his power grew too great, and his name was extolled above his Princes; and that through the rigour of his violent Government the Netherlands were driven to a revolt, yea to desperation. Although some bloody minded persons were of opinion that there could not in all Spaine bee a meeter man found to make an end of that warre, and reduce the Netherlands into the forme of a Province. Who being men without pittie, yet seemed to pittie the King, if hee hoped that the Prince of Orange and the Confederates, being with obstinate minds resolved to retaine their freedome, rich, and strongly guarded by the naturall scituation of the places, would be reduced into order by kind usage. To the Duke of Alva was assigned for Successor Don Lewis Zuniga de Requesens, great Commander of Castil, a man of more milde spirit, who being desirous to bind Queene Elizabeth unto him by all good offices, and attending his owne affaires, would intermeddle neither with Scottish or English matters.
16. Whether I should make mention of the frantick opinion of Peter Burchet, I know not, who had perswaded himselfe that it was lawfull to kill such as opposed the truth of the Gospell. So farre had the errour of this opinion transported him that he drew his dagger upon Hawkins that famour Navigator in the open street, and wounded him, supposing him to bee Hatton who was then to great grace with the Queene, and of her Privie Councell, whom he had heard to be one that opposed the Innovators [glossed “Puritans”]. The Queen was so extraordinarily incensed with this fact, that she commanded the man to bee presently Executed by Martiall or Campe law, untill she was informed by the wiser sort that Martiall law was not to be used but in Campes, or in turbulent times; but at home, and in time of Peace, the proceeding must bee by forme of Judiciary processe. Being therefore indited hee affirmed that that which he had done was consonant to the holy Scriptures, and therefore lawfull. Whereupon being to be condemned of Heresie, hee promised to renounce his opinion, but yet hee shifted it off, and would not. Then being cast into the Tower of London, hee slew one of his Keepers with a Billet which he snatched up out of the Chimney, and knockt him on the head; for which hee was condemned of Murther, had his right hand cut off, and nayled to the Gallowes, and then was hanged, hee making resistance without any words.
17. In the beginning of this yeare dyed William Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord Privie Seale, sonne of Thomas Howard, that Martiall Duke of Norfolke by his second wife Agnes Tilney; a man of most approved fidelity and invincible courage, who being first Governour of Calice [Calais], was by Queene Mary taken into the number of Barons, and made great Admirall of England. To whom he was afterward Lord Chamberlaine, as hee was also to Queene Elizabeth, untill being broken with age hee resigned it a few moneths before his death to Sussex, being made Lord Privie Seale, which (as I sayd) is the fourth degree of Honour in England. In the honour of the Baronie succeeded Charles, his Sonne, who was afterwards Lord Chamberlaine to the Queene, and in like manner Lord Great Admirall of England.
18. Not long after dyed also Reginald Grey Earle of Kent, whom the Queene a yeare before had raised from a private man to the honour of Earle of Kent, after that this title had lyen asleepe the space of fifty yeares from the death of Richard Grey Earle of Kent, who had set his Patrimony flying, and was elder Brother to this mans Grandfather. In this honour succeded unto him Henry his Brother.
19. And I must not passe over in silence John Caius, or Keyes, a famous Physician, borne at Norwich, and brought up in the Universities of Cambridge and Padua, who deceased at this time, having spent his continuall time in Physicke, translating much of Galen and Celsus into Latine, and commenting more, and in the end gave all his wealth to the advancement of Learning, joyning a new Colledge to old Gonwell Hall in Cambridge, and giving perpetuall maintenance for 23 Students. Whereupon they grew into one name of Gonwell and Caius College, wherein he lyeth intombed with this Inscription, FUI CAIUS, that is, I WAS CAIUS.
20. In Ireland, the O-Conors and O-Moores, Families impatient of quiet, gathered together certaine roving Companies, and making outragious spoyle, sacked and Burnt Athlone upon the River Siney or Synone. But Sir John Perot President of Munster kept them from joyning their forces with the Rebels in Munster; who with continuall incursions hunted and prosecuted the Rebels James Fitz-Moris and Fitz-Edmunds Steward of Imokelly, putting many of them to the Sword, and forcing the Castle of Maym with the French Garrison therein, insomuch as he made them glad to crave pardon with all submission in the Church of Kilmalocke, that is Saint Malachi’s Cell. And at the same time the Earle of Desmund with John his brother, who were the authors of that rebellion, were brought backe by Sir Edward Fitton out of England into Ireland, and were cast in prison at Dublin, from whence notwithstanding they shortly after brake out.
21. In Ulster, Brian Mac Phelim, who had usurped a great part of the Country of Clandeboy, burnt the towne of Knock-fergus, that is, Fergus his Rocke; and others in that tract began to rise in commotion. Against these, Walter D’Evereux (whom Queene Elizabeth had lately created Earle of Essex) craved an expedition, following the counsaile of those, who desired above all things to have him further off, and to plunge him into dangers under colour of honour. Which hee knew well enough; but being an industrious man, and one that had acquainted his minde with warlike discipline even from his youth, hee held on his resolution, and made an agreement with the Queene that upon certaine cautions the one halfe of Clandeboy, if he drove out the rebels, should be granted to him and his Souldiers; for the defence whereof hee should maintaine at his owne charge two hundred Horsemen and foure hundred Foote. And for provision for the Warre, he borrowed of the Queene ten thousand pound of English mony, morgaging his lands in Essex for the same. Sir William Fitz-Williams Lord Deputie of Ireland, fearing least the honour of so great an Earle would eclipse his glory in Ireland, advised the Queene that he might not be sent faigning to himselfe I know not what generall revolt of all Ulster. But Essex for all that was sent, and that the Lord Deputies honour and authoritie might stand unblemished, he was commanded to receive his Patent from him, whereby he should be made Governor of Ulster; which long it was ere he could get, and that not without importunate suite.
22. After he had beene tossed with a grievous tempest at Sea, hee arrived towards the end of August at Knock-fergus, with the Lord Darcy, and the Lord Rich, Henry Knolles, and foure of his Brethren, MIchael and John Cary, Henry William, and John Norris, and a tumultuary power of Souldiers. Before his arrival Brian Mac Phelim had driven away his Cattle, which were all his wealth, into the innermore parts (for besides Sheepe and Hogs, he had thirty thousand Cows). After his arrivall hee congratulated him, and most frankely offered him alll kindnesse, as also did Mac Gilespic, Mac Guile, Hugh Baron of Dungannon, and other great Lords round about. The Earle promised to pardon Mac Phelim’s Rebellion, and sought to tye him unto him by his bountie. But he shortly after revolted, and withdrew himselfe with all his to Turloigh Leinigh; then followed dayly skirmishes against the English. The Lord Rich being called away by private businesses, returned after a moneth into England. Henry Knolles also by reason of sicknesse, and many others, alleaging some one cause, and some another, withdrew themselves daily by little and little out of that uncivill Countrey. Essex graciously complained to the Queene and his friends by letters that his gentlemen souldiers languished, that the expedition was undertaken somewhat too late, victuals too long ere they came, and those tainted, that the common souldiers were inconsiderately chosen, and many of them had miscarred; that Mac-Phelim was revolted, and that, by the cunning dealing, yea trechery of Pierse an English Captaine, who had formerly borne rule amongst the Irish in those parts. For his part, he was unable to beare the charges of warre; that the Lord Deputie had not yet sent him his Patent, so as he could exercise no authority over the bordering people. He therefore prayeth the Queene to undertake the matter in her owne name, and by her owne command, though he bare the one halfe of the charge.
23. Afterwards he besought Sussex, Leicester, and Burghley, to make intercession for him to the Queene, to allow paye for 100 horse and 600 foote and grant unto him Maye a Byland or Chersonesse [a peninsula]. And when the Queene determined in her mind to call home Essex out of Ulster, tumults arising in Munster, Leicester and others overcame her by perswasions, that hee was not sent for. And the Lord Deputy commanded that whilst he himselfe marched against Desmund who was escaped out of prison contrary to his faith given, Essex should come to the borders of Ulster. Which though it were somewhat grievous to him, who was now wholly busied in making of fortifications in Clandeboy, yet hee obeyed, yea and going into Munster with Kildare, perswaded Desmond to peace, who not long after submitted himselfe.
24. Now Essex having received the Patent of his authority, undertooke a long march against Turlogh Leinigh, and with the Earle joyned O-Donell. But from Con-O-Donell, Turlogh’s sonne in law, who would not serve under him, he tooke the Castle of Liffer, and granted it to Hugh O-Donell, whilst Turlogh in the meane time protracted the time with parlies till Essex was of necessity to returne; who as hee had wasted his body with labours and cares all the Summer, so now winter approaching, hee cast more deeply in his mind by what means Ulster, that had beene so long neglected and growne wild, might be reduced to civility; and upon mature deliberation of the matter hee shewed that if three townes were built at the Queenes charge, and tenne sconces by a common purse of the souldiers, in convenient places which he had pointed out, above seaven thousand pound of English money might be gathered yearely, and after 2 yeares the Queene should not need to maintain any more garisons.
25. Whilst he busined himselfe wholly about these and such like wholsome cogitations for providing of victualls, hee escaped narrowly from being slaine by the Irish. For Brian Mac Phelim, who had of late slaine by treason one Moore an English Captain, had conspired with Turlogh and the Hebridian Scottes. Which as soone as he understood, he judged it best not to awaite their comming, but to set upon them; and set upon them hee did, so resolutely that, with the slaughter of two hundred Irish, he tooke Brian, and Rory Oge, his halfe brother, and Brian’s wife. With these businesses was the yeare well spent in Ireland to no mans good, but to Essex his great damage, and also to the great losse of Chaterton an English Gentleman, who upon certaine Conditions with the Queene, had unfortunately undertaken to conduct English Colonies into Fues and the Territore of O-Hanlan.