- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1570
THE Rebellion in England being now extinguished, Murray Regent of Scotland laboured earnestly that the Queene of Scots might be delivered into his hands, and in that respect he both offered Hostages and promised to deliver up the Earles of Northumberland and Westmerland, and so wrought that the Bishop of Rosse was commited to the custody of the Bishop of London, as Author of the Rebellion. Then, to winne favour with the Queene Elizabeth by some dessert, in the moneth of January he curred [ran] into the borders of Scotland towards England with an Army to search for the English Rebels, of whom a fewe hee tooke, and those of no note, and at the length found the Earle of Northumberland through the discovery of his Host, lurking amontst the ranke-riders on the borders, sent him to Loch-Levin to be kept, and grievously afflicted the borderers.
2. But the same moneth, when after great labour sustained, he seemed secure in minde, hee was slaine at Limnuch (commonly called Lithquo) being shot with a leaden bullet beneath the navell as he rode in the streete by one that lay in waite for him. The murtherer was one Hamilton, who presently escaped itno France, and lived certaine yeares after, protesting many times that he had taken private revenge on Murray, for that his patience could hold out no longer against the injuries he had done him. For Murray, because he had stood for the Queene, had proscribed him and shut him up in prison, untill he delivered up to a receiver of Murrays a Farme which had come unto him by his Wife. Whereby his Wife became distracted in minde, and he himselfe in a rage brake prison, and committed the murther. Neither could hee be perswaded in France afterward, though hee seemed a man forward to commit a villainous fact, to attempt the like against the Admirall Coligny, saying many times that he had beene a just revenger of his own griefe, whereof he repented him, but to be a revenger of another mans he would never be drawne, neither by intreaty nor reward.
3. Hereupon much talke there was all over Brittaine of the murther of the Regent, many making a wonderment at vaine things, as his mothers dreame after a nights lodging by stealth with King James the 5th of a Lyon and a Dragon fighting together in her wombe. Amongst the wiser sort he was according to their affections to the parties, by some commended for expelling the Romish religion out of Scotland, for preserving the yong King, for administring Justice indifferently, and for his bounty towards learned men, especially Buchanan. Contrariwise, by others he was taxed, as if he had taken Religion for a cloake that he might glut himselfe and his with the spoyles of the Church, and that being most injuriously unthankfull to the Queene his Sister, to whom hee was much bounden, he had inhumanely insulted over her womanly weaknesse. And these, out of their suspicions and conjectures of the bad disposition of many that are base-borne, guessed that he would little spare the sonne, which had despoyled the mother of her Kingdome. The Queene of Scots sorrowed that he was taken away by so sudden and violent a death, before he had (as she sayd) expiated his sinnes against God, his Prince, and Countrey by serious repentance. But the English, as many as favoured Norfolke, accused him as farre as they durst, as a slye and cunning dissembler.
4. The next night after the murther of the Regent, Thomas Carr of Fernihurst and Walter Scot of Buchleui, most stout men amongst the Scottish borderers, to the Scottish Queene most devoted, and which had stood out for her even to banishment and overthrowe of their estates, breathing revenge against the Queene of England for that the Regent had for her sake afflicted the borderers, entred forcibly into England with the Scots and some English rebels, brake the peace, and with fire and sword harried the borders, as if they meant to make a desolation. Hereupon was Mr. Thomas Randolph sent presently into Scotland to informe the Scottish Lords of so great an injury in a publique assembly, and to signifie unto them that if they could not restraine the disturbers of the peace (Scotland being now in an unproare) the Queene would with her forces precute the Injuries done unto her, and not Endammage any that did not deserve it. Hereupon no answere was made, for that there had beene as yet no Regent appointed. Yet to defend the English borderers from wrong, and represse the insolency of the enemy, the Earle of Sussex was commanded to leavy forces, and to march against Buchlui and Fernihurst; but to prosecute by warre those only, which had lately with the English Rebels invaded England, living by robbery and spoyle, or had relieved, or from thenceforth should relieve the English rebels, contrary to the confederacies. Neither could he be stayed, though the Earles of Argile and Huntley, who favoured the Queene of Scots, sent Treboun, and craved truce, till they might give notice to Queene Elizabeth of Scottish matters; whom when they could not disswade from her purpose, first they cast foorth in a manner certaine threats, and by and by turning to prayers and intreaties, they besought her that certaine matters enacted and established in Scotland the last two yeares, might be repealed.
5. Neverthelesse in the middest of Aprill, Sussex with the Lord Hunsdon, Drury Marshall of Barwick, and an English Army, entred into Scotland. fired the Townes and Villages of Buchluy and the Carres all over Tuiudale, spoyled their fields, and threw downe Fernihurst and Cruling, two Catles of Thomas Carres. On the other side, Henry Lord Scroope entered the very same time into the West march of Scotland, and wasted farre and wide all over Amandale, the territories of Johnson and others, which had harboured the English rebels. At this time were burnt 300 villages and about 50 Castles razed.
6. Some few dayes after, Sussex entring againe into Scotland with the Lord Hunsdon, besieged Humes Castle, a receptacle of the English rebels, planted his Ordinance against it, and tooke it by composition; wherein were found not above one or two of the rebels, who beeing hanged, and a garison put into the Castle, he commanded Drury to besiege Fast Castle, another hold also of the Lord Humes, which was also soone yeelded up to unto him.
7. When the English rebels had now retired themselves into the innermore parts of Scotland, and associating themselves with other men of their quality, threatned fire and sword to the borderers in England, and to those of the Kings party in Scotland, Sussex, as soone as Drury was returned, sent him backe again the seaventh day after into Scotland with twelve hundereth foote and foure hundereth horse. Who at Coldingham received hostages for the Earles of Angase, Morton, Marre, and Glencarne, and for the Barons of Reuven and Lindsey, who had with much intreaty invited the English. Afterwards Sussex himselfe, accompanied with Sir George Cary, Sir Thomas Manours, Sir Robert Constabile (whom together with Dury hee had Knighted), Hierome Boines, William Knolles, Thomas Brickwell, Robert Gaines, Enrington Carvill, and other Captaines and Commanders, marched to Edinborough, and joyned his forces with the sayde Earles and with Lenox, who was then newly returned into England, though Sussex were to them somewhat suspect as inclining to Norfolke and the Queene of Scots party. All these march by Lithquo to Glascow, from whence Hamilton Duke of Castle-Herland had withdrawen himselfe. From thence they turne aside to Hamilton Castle, which being battered with the great Ordinance, was soone rendred and halfe razed. A goodly Towne also of the Hamiltons was fired, and their possessions every where cruelly wasted all over Cluidsdale, as was also in their return, Hamiltons Palace at Lithquo.
8. Now the Lords of Scotland (having remooved from the King the Hamiltons and the rest which had stood for the deposed Queene), and being to meete together about choosing a new Regent, asked Queene Elizabeths Counsaile. She answered that shee would not intermeddle in making a Regent, least she might seeme to prejudice the Queene of Scots, whose cause was not yet decided. But they created Mathew Earle of Lenox the Kings Grand-father, first Interrex, that is, Viceroy during the Kings Nonage, and soone after, Regent, Queene Elizabeth not opposing it. For shee knew hee would even by nature most kinde and loving to the young King, his Grand-sonne, and most affectionate to the English for the benefites he had received. And she doubted not but he would be at her devotion, considering that she had his wife in her power.
9. Whilest Queene Elizabeth thus assisted the Kings party in Scotland, the Spaniard fayled not the Captive Queene, but by the procurement of Hamilton Rector of the Church of Dunbar sent privily out of the Netherlands great provision of Arms and Powder, seaven peeces of great Ordinance, and some quantity of mony to Huntly the Queenes Lieutenant in the North parts of Scotland. In the meane time Huntly, the Duke of Castle-Herald, and Argile, the Queenes Lieutenants, by common counsaile and the Queenes consent, dispatched George Lord Seaton in Embassage to the Duke of Alva. Who having Audience delivered these things following: That he was sent from a Kingdome despoyled of publicke Peace, and of a most excellent Princesse, though the Treachery of disloyal subjects. That the summe of his Message consisted in these points: that helpe might be Ministred to redeeme the Queene out of miserable Captivity in a Forraine Land, and the Realme delivered from the oppression of strangers; that the Scottish Rebels might be prohibited trafficke in the Spaniards Dominions; and that the ten thousand Ducats assigned to the Queene of Scots might be paid; that the Queene fled to the Spaniards bosome, in whose minde was seated nothing but Honour, Justice, and Piety (most worthy Objects for a Catholike Prince); that she used the Duke of Alva as an Intercessour for her, whose whole endeavour is that those wholsome intentions of the Catholike King may be brought to effect. Profit hereby to the Spaniard he propounded none, for this were a thing unworthy of so great a Majesty; but he offered him the perpetuall amity of a most renowned Queene, and a most stout Nation, and their assured obsequiousnesse with most thankefull hearts. Farre and wide shone the glory of his Father Charles the fifth in restoring the Duke of Florence and the Mahometan King to their former dignity. But if he restore a Christian Queene, a most constant embracer of the Christian Religion, an absolute Princesse, allied in blood and Confederacy to the greatest Princes of Christendome, and most undoubted Heire of two most flourishing Kingdomes, how glorious a thing would it be, and how incomparable an argument of his piety! Hereby may he not only binde unto him France, Denmarke, Lorayne, the Guises, the most Holy Father, and the whole Catholike Church in generall, but also insisting in his Fathers steppes, in relieving and restoring Princes unjustly thrust out of their Thrones, may equall, yea farre surpasse the glory of his Father. Him principally it concerneth that this dangrous example of deposing hereditary Kings bee revenged, considering he is the greatest Monarke of Europe, and his Dominions being farre disjoyned, may yeeld most easie opportunities to such insolent arrogance. Neyther can there be any more notable, or more fruitfull patterne of Justice. For by restoring her, he shall bind unto him in a most straight bond of Amity and Confederacy a Queene Dowager of France, an abolute Queene of Scotland, the undoubted Heire of England, and the Scottish Nation, whose most constant fidelity in observing the French League ever since the dayes of Charles the Great, is well known to the whole World. Moreover hereby (so he beare a mind worthy himselfe) lyeth open a way to revenge the wrongs received from the Queene of England, who favoureth the Rebels in the Netherlands, hath intercepted him Money, ill intreated his Embassadour, and layd hands on his Subjects goods. To lye drowsing till Scotland have submitted it selfe to the Queene of England were carelesse and grosse sloathefulnesse. That Woman will by meanes of so great an increase of her Empire, and of security purchased at home, grow dreadfull to her Neighbours; and her manly courage, and Sexe greedy of Command, will easily devise meanes to imbroyl Spaine with a long Warre. Wherein if she be prevented, she may easily be restrayned with the feare of her owne Estate, considering that few in Scotland do oppose against the Captive Queene; most of the Noblemen, and all the Catholikes in generall of both Kingdomes, favour her, all the Ports of Scotland are in her Power, and for maintainance of this so holy a Warre the Bishop of Rome will not spare the very Goods of the Church. Nothing therefore remaineth but that the Catholike King put forth his strength in a cause so just, so pious, and so profitable. From him alone all the Catholikes of Brittaine do now either expect comfort, or looke to be undone.
10. The Duke of Alva answered that hee would bee ready and foward to further the cause with the Spaniard by all meanes whatsoever. But as for the Commerce of the Scottish Rebells, hee could not prohibite it, for that it was contrary to the freedom of the Netherlands. But hee promised that the money should be payd out of hand. Seaton in the meane time, the more to winn favour with the Spaniard and the Duke of Alva by some sort, went in counterfeit habite to the Confederate Netherlanders, and with smooth Words, Banquetings, and other Corruptions, drew the Scots that served under them to revolt; and when he was to be put to Torture, he hardly escaped with great perill of his life, to the Duke of Alva, who promised him pay for then thousand men for sixe moneths; but all in vaine, for by reason of great troubles arising in the Netherlands, hee could send to men into Scotland.
11. Meanwhile the Bishop of Rosse (who had lustily sollicited the Queene of Scots matters in England, and was commited to the Bishop of Londons custody for that hee had privily given fire to the Rebellion), being now set at liberty, so wrought that the French King dealt seriously by his Embassadour and Montluke, with Queene Elizabeth, for the delivery of the Queene of Scots. Which Embassadour and Montluke grievously complained that she was kept in straighter custody and that, under the Earle of Huntingdon her most bitter adversary and Competitor (for hee openly layd claime to the Kingdome of England as well as she). The same also did the King of Spaines Embassadour most earnestly urge in the King his Masters name, through the procurement of Rosse. The Queene, after shee had recited the cunning practices of some for delivering the Queene of Scots (whom she covertly signified to have been accessary to the late rebellion) answered, That it were a point of inconsiderate and most dangerous folly to let her loose, who so openly aspired by bad practices to the Kingdome of England; that he was constrained of necessity to commit her to straighter custody, to remove some of her servants, whereof she had drawne unto her very many, and to joyne the Earle of Huntington (in whom shee acknowledged no right to the Crowne, but some kindred to her shee confessed), with the Earle of Shrewbury, whom she had appointed her Keeper, who had begunne not long agone to suspect the trustinesse of his own people, and perceived many to be drawne daily to favour the Queene of Scots. Neverthelesse the Earle of Huntington (said she) hath beene a good while since removed from her. She promiseth moreoever That shee would omit nothing which might make for the compounding of the matter betweene the Scottish Queene and the Scots. And withall protested that shee would not prosecute the injuries she had received. But yet by the French Kings, the Spaniards, and the Queene of Scots leave, shee may (shee trusteth) provide for her owne and her Peoples quiet and safety, as Nature, Reason, and her Princely reputation or Honor do worthily require. And if any of them can devise any more apparent meanes to avoide the danger, shee will most gladly hearken to it, and embrace it.
12. After this, much consulting there was at Court, whether the Queene of Scots were to be sent home, or to bee stayed in England, and how the safety of the Realme, the Queene, and Religion, might best be provided for. In the meane time William Herbert Earle of Penbroke, son of Richard, the son of William Herbert, the elder Earle of Penbroke, presaging some disaster to himselfe, departed this life in his Clmaterial yeare, leaving behind him 3 children, Henry, Edward, and Anne, being with a stately funerall inclosed in a goodly monument in Saint Paules Church. An excellent man, who in a manner fashioned his owne fortune. With Henry the eighth he got into great favour, to whom he was Chamberlaine. By his wisedome he increased his wealth, especially after such time as the King had married Catherine Par his wives Sister. Under Edward the sixt, whilest the Court was distracted with factions, hee obtained the Garter of the order of Saint George, the dignity of Maister of the Horse, the title of Baron Herbert of Caerdiff, and the honour of Earle of Penbroke. Under Queene Mary he commanded her forces against Wiat, and was Generall of the English Army at San Quentins, Lord President of Wales, and twise Governour of Calis [Calais]. Under Queene Elizabeth he was made Great Maister of the Household, whose favour he lost for a time, for that (neither with all mind, nor bad intent) he specially furthered Norfolks marriage with the Queene of Scots; and it missed little but he had bene proscribed when he was dead, by meanes of certain matters brought to light, and presumptions layd hold on.
13. Pius Quintus Bishop of Rome, who had heretofore layd close plots against Queene Elizabeth, and had the last yeare by his Bull declaratory, without any admonition or citation premised, secretly innodated her by his sentence of Anathema, and had raised rebellion agains her, now caused the same to be published, and set up upon the gatres of the Bishop of Londons Palace, in these words.
A SENTENCE DECLARATORY OF OUR HOLY LORD POPE PIUS QUINTUS,
AGAINST ELIZABETH <PRETENSED> QUEENE OF ENGLAND,
AND THE HERETIKES ADHERING TO HER
Wherein also all her subjects are declared absolved from the Oath of Alleagance,
and every other thing due unto her
whatsoever; And those which from
henceforth obey her, are innodated with the Anathema
PIUS BISHOP, SERVANT TO GODS SERVANTS,
FOR A FUTURE MEMORALL OF THE MATTER
He that reigneth on high, to whom is given all power in heaven and on earth, commited one, holy, Catholike and Apostolike Church, out of which there is no salvation, to one alone upon earth, namely to Peter the chiefe of the Apostles, and to Peters Successour the Bishop of Rome, to be governed in fulnesse of power. Him alone he made Prince over all people, and all Kingdomes, to pluck up, destroy, scatter, consume, plant and build, that he may containe the faithfull that are knit together with the band of charity, in the unity of the spirit, and present them spotlesse and unblameable to their Saviour. In discharge of which function, We which are by Gods goodnesse called to the gouvernement of the aforesayd Church, do spare no paines, labouring with all the earnestnesse that Unity and the Catholike Religion (which the Author thereof hath for the tryall of his childrens faith, and for our amendment, suffered to be punished with so great afflictions) might be preserved uncorrupt. But the number of the ungodly hath gotten such power that there is now no place left in the whole world which they have not assayed to corrupt with their most wicked Doctrines; amongst others, Elizabeth the pretensed Queene of England, the servant of wickednesse, lending thereunto her helping hand, with whom as in a Sanctuary the most pernicious of all have found a refuge. This very woman having seazed on the Kingdome, and monstrously usurping the place of supreme head of the Church in all England, and the chiefe authority and jurisdiction thereof, hath againe brought backe the sayd Kingdome into miserable destruction, which was then newly reduced to the Catholike Faith and good fruits. For having by strong hand inhibited the exercise of the true Religion, which Mary the lawfull Queene of famous memory,had by the helpe of this See restored after it had bene formerly overthrowne by Henry the eighth, a revolter therefrom; and following and embracing the errors of Heretikes, she hath removed the royall Councell consisting of the English Nobility, and filled it with obscure men being Heretikes, suppressed the embraces of the Catholike Faith, placed dishonest Preachers, and Ministers of impieties, abolished the sacrifice of the Masse, Prayers, Fastings, choyce of meates, unmaried life, and the Catholike rites and Ceremonies, commanded Bookes to be read in the whole Realme containing manifest Heresie; and impious mysteries and institutions by her selfe entertained and observed according to the Praescript of Calvin, to be likewise observed by her Subjects; presumed to throw Bishops, Parsons of Churches, and other Catholike Priests, out of their Churches and beneficies, and bestow them and other Church-livings upon Heretikes, and to determine of Church causes, prohibited the Prelats, Clergie and people to acknowledge the Church of Rome, or obey the preceps and Canonicall sanctions thereof; compelled most of them to condescend to her wicked Lawes, and to abjure the authority and obedience of the Bishop Rome, and to acknowledge her to be sole Lady in Temporall and Spirituall matters, and this by Oath; imposed penalties and punishments upon those which obeyed not, and exacted them of those which perservered in the Unity of the Faith and their obedience aforesayd, cast the Catholike Prelats and Rectors of Churches in prison, where many therein beeing spent with long languishing and sorrow, miserably ended their lives. All which things, seeing they are manifest and notorious to all Nations, and by the gravest testimonie of very many so substantially proved that there is no place at all left for excuse, defence or evasion. We seeing that impieties and wicked actions are multiplied one upon another, and moreover that the persecution of the faithfull, and affliction for Religion, groweth every day heavier and heavier through the instigation and meanes of the sayd Elizabeth; because We understand her minde to be so hardened and indurate that she hath not onely contemned the godly requests and admonitions of Catholike Princes concerning her healing and conversion, but also hath not so much as permitted the Nuncios of this Sea to crosse the seas into England, are constrained of necessity to betake our selves to the weapons of Justice against her, not being able to mitigate our sorrow that we are drawne to take punishment upon one, to whose Ancestors the whole State of all Christendome hath beene so much bounden. Being therefore supported with His authority, whose pleasure it was to place Us (though unable for so great a burthen) in this supreme throne of Justice, We doe out of the fulnesse of our Apostolike power declare the aforesayd Elizabeth being an Heretike, and a favourer of Heritikes, and her adherents in the matters aforesayd, to have incurred the sentence of Anathema, and to be cut off from the Unity of the body of Christ. And moreover We do declare Her to be deprived of her pretended Title to the Kingdome aforesayd, and of all Dominion, Dignity, and Priviledge what soever; and also the Nobility, Subjects, and People of the sayd Kingdome, and all others which have in any sort sworne unto Her, to be for ever absolved from any such Oath, and all manner of duty of dominion, alleageance, and obedience. As We also doe by authority of these presents absolve them, and do deprive the same Elizabeth of her pretended title to the Kingdome, and all other things abovesayd. And We do command and interdict all and every the Noblemen, Subjects, People, and others aforesayd that they presume not to obey her, or her monitions, Mandates, and Lawes; and those which shall doe the contrary, We do innodate with the like sentence of Anathema. And because it were a matter of too much difficulty, to conveigh these presents to all places wheresoever it shall be needfull, our will is that the copies thereof under a publike Notaries hand, and sealed with the seale of an Ecclesiasticall Prelate, or of his Court, shall carry altogether the same credit, with all people, iudictally and extrajudically, as these Present should doe, if they were exhibited or shewed.Given at Rome at Saint Peters in the yeare of the incarnation of our Lord one thousand five hundreth sixty nine, the fifth of the Kalends of March, and of our Popedom the fifty yeare.
14. Hereupon new suspitions arose that some monster was a-breeding and certainly another Rebellion was ready forthwith to breake out in Norfolke, but was prevented in the very beginning. Certaine Norfolke Gentlemen beeing minded to set the Duke at liberty (towardes whom all men bare a singular love) layd a plot that when the people resorted to a fiare at Harlstone, they would gather the multitude together with the sound of a Trumpet, under colour to expell the Netherlanders out of England, which had withdrawne themselves in great number to that coast by reason of the Duke of Alva’s tyranny. Of these Gentlemen, some were brought to their tryall and condemned of high treason, three onely were executed (such was the Queenes mercy). The man of greatest note was John Throckmorton, who at the Barre stood mute, but at the Gallowes to excuse the rest, confessed himselfe the principall Author and perswader.
15. John Felton, who had set up the Bull upon the Bishop of London’s Palace gates, was now taken (for flye he would not), arraygned, and with an undaunted minde confessed the fact (which notwithstanding he would not acknowlede to be a fault), for which he was hanged neere the place were he had set it up, attayning the vaine shadow of glorious martyrdome. But the most part of the modest sort of Papists secretly misse-liked this Bull for that there had no admonition proceeded according to Law, and foreseeing that hereby a great heape of mischiefes hung over their heads, who before had private exercise of their Religion within their owne houses quietly enough, or else refused not to goe to the service of God received in the English Church, without scruple of conscience. And from thenceforth many of them continued firme in their obedience when they saw the neighbour Princes and Catholike Countries not to abstaine from their wonted commerce with the Queene, and that the Bull was contemned as a vaine cracke of words.
16. The same day that Felton was arraygned, the Duke of Norfolke (who had confessed that he had slipped through folly, and made shew of so great repentance that not onely his minde abhorred from the marriage, but his eares also from the hearing any mention thereof, and had bound himselfe by a faithfull promise in writing that he would meddle no more in the marriage with the Queene of Scots, without acquainting Queene Elizabeth therewith), was, to the great rejoycing of all men, sent forth of the Towre of London (wherein the pestilence began to waxe hot), home to his owne house, to live there under the free custody of Sir Henry Nevill. Neither indeed could hee be proceeded against by the Statute of 25th of Edward the 3rd concerning high treason, as Cecyl advertised him, who, favouring the Duke, did his best endeavour that he might marry some other woman that there might be no more cause to misdoubt him, and the publique tranquillity might be provided for. Yet some there were which thought he was now let out of purpose that he might be thrust forward into a greater danger. Certainely there came afterwards more matters to light daily then ever he suspected, and the trust of those which were of his inward counsailes was with hope or corruptions overcome.
17. The times were now must full of suspitions and conspiracies. For Thomas and Edward Stanley, the Erle of Derby’s younger sonnes by the daughter of Thomas, Duke of Norfolke, Thomas Gerard, Rolson, Hall, and others in the Country of Darby, conspired to deliver the Queene of Scots out of custody. But Rolsons sonne, who was one of the band of Gentlemen Pensioners, revealed the conspiracy, and they were cast in prison all saving Hall, who escaped into the Ile of Man, and from thence was sent with the Bishop of Rosse his commendations over to Donbritton, where he was taken afterwards when the Castell was wonne, and at length executed at London. And the Bishop of Rosse also himselfe, having beene lately delivered out of custody, was againe committed to the Bishop of London’s keeping, for that hee had had secret conferences with the Earle of Southampton, a man most devoted to the Roman Religion.
18. In the meane time Sussex, accompanied with the Lord Scroope and certaine light companies, entred againe into Scotland, fired the Townes and Villages all over Anandale, razed Anand a Castle of Herris his, and Caer Lancrock a Castle of Maxwell’s (which two had made rodes into England for booty), and drove those who held for the Queene of Scots to such straights that the Duke of Castle-Herald, Huntley, and Argile sent unto him a writing under their hands and seales, whereby they bound themselves both to absayne from warre and to forsake the English Rebels. Sussex being now returned, knighted Edward Hastings, Francis Russell, Valentine Browne, William Hilton, Robert Stapleton, Henry Carmen, and Simon Musgrave, for their valours and he himselfe afterwards for his approved wisedome and vertue, was admitted to the Queenes Privy Councell.
19. Queene Elizabeteh (whose minde hung in suspense with sundry suspitions by reason of the said Bull and the conspiracy of Norfolke) sent Cecyl and Sir Walter Mildmay to the Queene of Scots then lying at Chattesworth in the County of Darby (who, after a dangerous journey the waters swelling every where above measure, came thither in the moneth of October), to consult with her, by what meanes most commodiously the dissention in Scotland might be compounded, she might be restored to her former dignity, and the security of Queen Elizabeth, and the safety of her young sonne provided for. Shee did nothing but bewayle her most afflicted estate, complaine of Murray’s cunning practices, excuse Norfolke, and place all her hope in Queene Elizabeths goodnesse, in whose hands shee had heard that the disposing of all matters as well in Scotland as in England rested. They propounded that for confirmation of a sincere league of peace betwixt both kingdomes, The treaty of Edinburgh might be confirmed. That she should renounce her title and claime to England, as long as Queene Elizabeth and the children lawfully borne of her body, should live. That she should not renew or keepe any league with any forraine Prince against England. That she should not receive any forraine souldiers into Scotland. That shee should have no intercourse of counsailes with the English or Irish, without acquainting the Queene therewith. That she should deliver up the English fugitives and Rebels. That she should recompence the dammage done to the English borderers. That she should inquire according to Law into the murther as well of the Lord Darley her husband, as of Murray. That she should contract marriage with no Englishman but with the advise of the Queene of England, nor with any other against the wills of the Estates of Scotland. That the Scots should not cross over into Ireland but by licence obtained out of England. That for confirmation of these things, the Queene and the Delegates to be appointed, should set to their hands and seales. That six hostages whom the Queene of England should name,should be sent into England. That if the Queene of Scots should attempt any thing by her selfe or any other against Queene Elizabeth, shee should ipso facto forfeit all her right and title shee claymeth to England. That Humes Castle and Fast-Castle should be holden by the English for three yeares, delivered into the Englishmens hands, lest from thence the Scotish-Irish might infest Ireland. Lastly that the Estates of Scotland should confirme all these things by authority of Parliament.
20. Hereunto first the Queene of Scots according to her wisedome very providently answered ex tempore, but referred them for a fuller answere, to the Bishop of Rosse her Embassadour in England, Alexander Gordon Bishop of Galloway, the Earle of Huntley’s Unckle, and William, Baron of Leavingstone, Delegates from her Lieutenants in Scotland; who afterwards accepted some of these Articles, and some they rejected. They answered, That the treaty of Edinburgh should be confirmed that the title should be renounced as long as Queene Elizabeth lived. That the ancient league with the French should bee considered of; which if they should not observe, the Queene should lose her dowry, the Scottish Nation, of whom an hundred launces, and 124 Archers were maintayned for a Guard, the Merchants, Students, many of which had got inheritances in France, and held Priestly functions, should be deprived and throwne out of very great pensions and immunities which they enjoyed; and Scotland would be destituted of the amity and ayd of a most potent Nation. Which things unlesse the English would recompence to the full, they could by no meanes renounce the French league. Forraine souldiers they would not admit, unlesse such a Rebellion should breake forth, as could not bee suppressed with forces at home. That the Queene of Scots should have no intercourse of counsailes with the subjects of England to the dammage of England, so as the Queene of England in like sort would have none with the Scottish subjects to the dammage of Scotland. That if there were any English fugitives and rebels in Scotland, they were with the Scottish rebels, and to be demanded of them. That the dammages which were done should be examined by Delegates. That the murder of the Lord Darly and Murray should be inquired into by the Lawes of Scotland. That they could not deliver the King for hostage into her hands, forasmuch as hee was in their power, which pretended the Kings name for a cloake to their rebellion against the Queene. That it was a strange thing and never heard of that a free Princesse should be prescribed by a forraine Prince\ and her owne subjects in contracting marriage. That the Scots should not crosse over into Ireland to the damage of the Queene of England without licence, if in like sort the Irish might be tied with the same condition that they should not crosse the seas into Scotland. For confirmation of security they consented to give hostrages, whomsoever the Queen of England should name, except the Duke of Castell-Herald, Huntley, Argile, and Athole. Moreover they assented that the Queene of Scots should be excluded from all right of succession in England if she attempted any thing against the Queene of Englands title, so as the Queene of England would be likewise bound in some such like penalty if she should attempt any thing against the Queene of Scots. As for Humes Castle, and Fast Castle, they prayed that they might be restored to the Lord Humes the proprietary Lord thereof, and no longer held by the English. That to deliver up fortresses in Galloway or Cantyr into forreiners hands were nothing else but to minister new matter of warre.
21. When they could not agree about these points, neither came there any Delegates from the Regent of Scotland, and in the meane time rumors were spred abroad that earnest suite was made to the Bishop of Rome, the French King, and the Duke of Alva, for ayde to deliver the Queene of Scots; and the English Rebels, Westmorland, the Countesse of Northumberland, and the rest, were conveyed out of Scotland (to whom the bishop of Rome had by Rosse his meanes supplied twelve thousand Crownes), there came nothing at all of this Treaty, save that Queene Elizabeth (who sate as it were at the helme of all Brittaine as an indifferent Umpire) commanded according to her authority the assembly of the Estates of Scotland to be prorogued, and a truce to be many times treated of. For the heads of both parties afflicted Scotland every where most grievously.
22. The Articles of this Treaty the Bishop of Rosse sent to the Pope, the French King and the Spaniard, and signified unto them that the Queene of Scots must of necessity consent thereunto unlesse shee were timely relieved with ayde and counsell; which he craved with all earnestnesse, yet all in vaine. For they were much busied with other cares, and the Spaniard was wholly employed in preparing for his mariage with Anne of Austria, the Emperour Maximilians daughter, and his owne Sisters daughter, who at this time set sayle out of Zeland into Spaine; for whose convoy over the British sea into Spaine, Queene Elizabeth for a singular testimony of her honor and love to the house of Austria, sent Charles Howard with a strong Fleete and choyce Gentlemen.
23. The twelfth yeare of the Reigne of Queene Elizabeth beeing nowe happily expired, wherein some light beleeving Papists expected according to the prediction of certaine Wizards their golden day, as they termed it, all good men throughout England joyfully triumphed, with Thankesgivings, Sermons in Churches, Prayers multiplied, joyfull ringing of Peels, running at Tilt, and Festivall mirth beganne to celebrate the 17th day of November, being the anniversary day of the beginning of her reigne, and in testimony of their obsequious love towards her, gave it not over as long as she lived.
24. In the meane time deceassed Henry Clifford, the second Earle of Cumberland of that Sirname, the sonne of Henry, whome Henry the eighth had raised to the honour of an Earle, in the yeere 1525. Howbeit of a very auntient and Noble Family, unto which very much honour came by marriages with the heires both of the Vescies, and Viponts, or De Vetere Ponte, who were in times past hereditary Sheriffes of Westmorland. He begate on his first wife Eleonor, one of the daughters of Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, by Mary sister to Henry the eighth, Margaret maried with great hope and pompe to Henry, the Earle of Darbys Sonne, as being the onely heire of the Family of the Cliffords. But this hope vanished away when he by a second wife Anne Dacres begate two sonnes, which succeeded one another in their fathers honour.
25. Sir Nicholas Throkmorton also payed his debt to Nature, a man often mentioned already, being the fourth sonne of Sir George Throkmorton Knight, by Katherine the daughter of Nicholas Lord Vaulx. A man of great experience, passing sharpe wit, and singular diligence. Who busily attempting many things in Queene Maries dayes hardly saved his life by his eloquent wisdome; and under Queene Elizabeth, having with indefatigable paines discharged many Embassies with great commendations, yet could hee rise but to small wealth, and those slight dignities (though glorious in title) of Chiefe Butler of England and Chamberlaine of the Exchequer, whilest he opposed himself as an emulator against Cecyl in favour of Leicester. In whose house as he fed hard at his supper on sallats [salads], he was taken (as some report) with an impostume of the lungs, as others say, with a vehement Catarr, not without suspition of poyson, and died in a good time for himselfe and his, being in great danger of life and estate by reason of his restlesse spirit.
26. In Ireland Connogher O-Brien, Earle of Twomund, for that they could not brooke Edward Fitton Governour of Connacht (who had begunne to governe the Countrey somewhat severely, and to cut off all hope from the great Lordes of Ireland, of pilling and polling the Subjectes) had entred into secret Counsailes with some to rayse Rebellion; which when it was nowe even readie to breake foorth, was by meere chaunce blowne over. For, the very day before they were to take up Armes, Fitton beeing utterly ignorant of the matter, curteously signified to Twomund that he would bee his guest the next day, with some friends of his. Twomund, beeing convicted in his owne conscience and striken into feare, which is the worst presager in doubfull matters, supposing that his plot was discovered, and that the Governour would come as an enemy, not as a guest, put to sea presently and sayled into France, whilest all men wondered what was become of him. The Conspiratours fearing least hee had beene gone into England to reveale the matter, continued in their obedience. Whereof when he had certaine intelligence, he seriously repented him, and freely confessed the whole matter to Norris the Embassadour in France, and by his intercession obtained such favour with Queene Elizabeth that he was restored to his livings.
27. But Thomas Stukely, an Englishman, a Ruffian, and a ryetous spender, and a notable boaster of himselfe (who having consumed his estate had fled into Ireland) being disappointed in his hope of the Stewardship of Wexford, after he had vomited foorth most unworthy disgraces against his Princesse, to whom he was much bounden, and being a man of no reckning, and therefore unable to rayse commotions, he slipped out of Ireland into Italy to Pius Quintus Bishoppe of Rome (where incredible it is how great grace and favour he wound himselfe by his flatteries with that old man, who breathed after the destruction of Queene Elizabeth by making great ostentations), and promising that with three thousand Italians he would drive the English out of Ireland, and fire the English Fleet. Which things afterwards he wickedly undertooke, but to his owne destruction, as we shall shew afterwards.