- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1565
THE Lord Darly in the meanetime, by the earnest and humble intercession of his mother to Queene Elizabeth, with much adoe obtained leave to goe into Scotland and there to stay three moneths, making his pretence that he might be partener of his fathers restitution. And in that most sharp Winter, when the Thames was frozen over that men might goe upon it, he came to Edenburgh in the moneth of February, a young Gentleman of a beauty most worthy of a Crowne, of very goodly personage, a most milde disposition, and sweetest manners. The Queene of Scots no sooner saw him but presently shee fell in love with him; and to conceale her love shee conferreth ever and anon with Randolph the English Ambassadour in Scotland of her marriage with Leicester; and withall sueth for a dispensation from Rome, for that the Lord Darley and she were so neere of kinne that by the Canon Law there must needes be a dispensation. When these things came to light, she sent Lidington to Queene Elizabeth, that her marriage with the Lord Darley might be contracted with her consent, and that she might no longer be kept from marriage in vaine expectation.
2. Queene Elizabeth propoundeth the matter to her inwardest Councellours, who through the secret suggestions of Murray easily beleeved that the Queene of Scots designe by this marriage tended to strengthen her right and Title to the Crowne of England,and to lay claime to it againe, and withall to rebring backe the Romish Religion; and that some would adhere unto her for the certainty of succession by her children by this marriage, and others out of their affection to the Romish Religion, forasmuch as they knew for certaine that the farre greater part of the Justicers of peace throughout England were devoted to the Romish Religion. For the preventing of these matters they thought it most necessary, first, to make suite to the Queene to marry some man out of hand, that the welfare and hope of the English might depend upon the certainety of succession by her and her issue, and not upon any other. (For they feared lest if the Queene of Scots should marry first and have issue, more would incline towards her for the certainty and assurance of succession.) Secondly, that the profession of the Romish Religion should be infringed as much as might be thorowout all England, and the profession of the reformed Religion carefully advanced and established; this later [latter], by dealing more moderately with some over-hot Protestants about indifferent things; that other, by the new commitment of the Popish Bishops to custody, that had beene displaced, and were dispersed abroad in the Couintry during the heate of the pestilence, by graunting unto the Bishops more ample authority to exercise the Ecclesiasticall Lawes against that Scare-crow of the Praemunire which the Lawyers cast in their way, by suppressing of bookes sent out of the Netherlands into England by Harding and other fugitive Divines, by removing certaine Scottish Priests that lurked in England, by depriving the English fugitives of their Ecclesiasticall beneficies which hiterto they enjoyed, and by compelling the Judges of the Land (which were almost all of them Papists) to acknowledge the Queenes Supremacy by oath. But for the breaking off of the marriage with the Lord Darly, it was thought good that for a terror Souldiers should be be leavied all over the borders towards Scotland, and that Barwicke should be manned with a stronger Garrison; that the Countesse of Lenox the Lord Darly’s mother and her sonne Charle, should be committed to custody; that the Earle of Lenox and his sonne the Lord Darly should be called home out of Scotland into England upon paine of losse of goods and lands, before such time as any confederacy should be made with the French King or the Spaniard; that the Scots which opposed the marriage should be supported; and that the Lady Catharine Grey with the Earle of Hertford should be received into some grace, of whom alone the Queene of Scots was thought to stand in carefull feare, as a competitour in the succession of the Crowne. And there was not any one thing which in their judgement could more delay and hinder the said marriage.
3. Hereupon was sent unto the Queene of Scots Sir Nicholas Throckmorton to put her in mind that it was long time to be deliberated of, which was but once to be resolved on; that an hasty marriage was ever-more attended with repentance; and to commend againe and againe the marriage with Leicester; that the other match with her aunts sonne was flatly repugnant to the Popes lawes. For Queene Elizabeth much desired that by her some man of the English blood might succeed in both Kingdomes; although there wanted not some which thought it would make for the safety of Religion and of both Kingdomes if she might dye without issue. She answered that the matter could not now bee recalled; neither was there cause why Queene Elizabeth should be offended, considering by her advice she had chosen, not a forrainer, but an Englishman, and one that was descended of the blood Royall of both Kingdomes, and the Noblest man of all Britaine. Lidington, all this while being in England, at sundry times colourably propounded to Leicester the marriage of the Queene of Scots; and also to the Duke of Norfolke, as one farre more worthy of that Royall match, who at that time put it off with a modest refusall.
4. The Queene of England, that she might interpose some impediment to this hasted marriage, recalleth home Lenox and the Lord Darly his sonne, as her subjects, according to the forme of the licence graunted. The father most modestly excuseth himselfe by Letters; the sonne beseecheth her that she will not be against his honour, signifieth that it may be he may be of use to England his most deare Country, and openly professeth himselfe to be a most devoted lover and honourer of the Queene of Scots above all others. Who, to requite his love, soone after honoured him with the dignity of Knighthood, and with the Titles of Baron of Ardmanock, Earle of Rosse, and Duke of Rothsey; and the fifth moneth after he was come into Scotland, tooke him to her husband, with the assent of very many of the Nobility, and proclaimed him King; while Murray, who plotted a part to serve his owne ambition, and under the glorious pretext of Religion had drawne to his party the Duke of Chastel-herault, a very good man, fretted at it, and others rose in commotion, disputing these questions: Whether a Papist might be admitted to be King? Whether the Queene of Scotland might choose her a husband at her owne pleasure? Whether the States of the Realme might impose one upon her by their owne authority?
5. The Queene of England, who had knowne the most milde nature and disposition of the Lord Darly, and the honest and open heart of his father, pittying the young man her kinsman, and the young Queene (who had to doe with most turbulent men, which having been loosed now above twenty yeeres from the command of a King, knew not know to brooke Kings), tooke the matter more quietly. And now she feared nothing from them, when she saw that the power of the Queene her emulator was nothing augumented by so meane a match, and the Lord Darly’s mother in her owne power, and foresaw that commotions would arise hereby in Scotland; which were not long before they were raised. For some of the Noblemen of Scotland, especially Hamilton and Murray, disdaining this marriage, Murray for that it was contracted without the consent of the Queene of England, and Hamilton in emulation of the house of Lenox, but both of them under colour of preserving Religion, advanced their Ensignes to breake off the marriage; insomuch as the Queen was faine to leavy Forces to celebrate her marriage securely. And so sharply she prosecuted the Rebels by the King her husband, that she chased them into England before the English Companies promised them could come to their succour. And the Queene of England graunted to Murray by way of connivence a lurking place in England, being a man most addicted to the English, and secretly supplied him with money by the hands of the Earle of Bedford, till he returned into Scotland the next day after David Rizo was slaine, as in due place we will declare. The causes why shee admitted Murray and the Scotish rebels into England were these: for that the Queene of Scots had received into her protection Yaxley, Standon, and Walsh, English fugitives, into Scotland, and O-Neal an Irishman, and had plotted with the Pope against the English, and had not done Justice upon the Rank-riders and Pirates.
6. This marriage being consummated, nothing seemed better to those which principally sought the advancement of the Protestants Religion and the safety of England then that, to weaken the Queene of Scots hope of the Kingdome of England, Queene Elizabeth should now seriously apply her minde to marriage. And very oportunely at that time did the Emperour Maximilian the second propound honorable conditions of marriage with his brother Charles, by Adam Smircorite his Ambassadour. At which time (for what causes I know not, unlesse it were for this marriage), there arose very grievous quarrels in the Court betweene the Earle of Sussex which highly favoured the marriage, and Leicester, who in respect of his owne hopes privily opposed it. (Certainly very great and shamefull hopes doe they foster, which have already attained things beyond hope.) And surely Sussex injuriously contemned him as a new upstart, who (as he was wont to say in detracting him) could produce no more but two ancestors, namely, his father and his grand-father, and those both of them enemies and Traitors to their Country. Hereupon the whole Court was divided into factions and part-taking, and the Earles, if at any time they went abroad, carryed with them great traines of followers with Swords and Bucklers, having iron pikes pointing out at the bosses (which were then in use), as if it were to try their uttermost. But after a few dayes the Queene reconciled them, and buryed their malice rather then tooke it away. For the dissentions of the Nobility, and that common by-word Divide et impera, that is, Set at odds, and command, inculcated by some, she condemned, judging that the force of command consisted in the consent of obeyers; yet now and then shee tooke pleasure (and not unprofitably) in the emulation and privy grudges of her women.
7. In the meane time she, being not unmindefull of Scottish matters, within a moneth or two after the solemnizing of the marriage in Scotland, sent Tamworth a Gentleman of her Privy Chamber to the Queene of Scots, to put her in minde of not breaking the peace, to expostulate her hasty marriage with a native subject of England without her consent, and withall to require Lenox and the Lord Darly his sonne to be sent backe into England, according to the forme of the confederacy, and Murray to be received into grace. She having secret inkling of the matter, admitted not the man to her presence, but by Articles put in writing, promised in the word of a Prince, that neither shee nor her husband would attempt any thing which should be prejudiciall to the Queene of England, or to the lawfull children of her body, or to the tranquillity of the Realme, either by receiving of fugitives, or making of League with forrainers, or by any other meanes; yea that they would most gladly contract such a League with the Queene and Kingdome of England as might be beneficiall and honourable to both Kingdomes, and would innovate nothing in the Religion, Lawes, and liberties of England, if ever they should enjoy the Kingdome of England. Howbeit with this condition, that the Queene of England would in like sort fully performe the same things her and her husband, and would by Act of Parliament establish the succession of the Crowne of England in her person and her lawfull issue, and in default thereof, in Margaret Countesse of Lenox, her husbands mother, and her lawfull children. As for other matters, she had advertised the Queene of marriage with the Lord Darly, as soone as she was certainely resolved to marry him; but she received no answer. That she had satisfied the Queenes demands, forasmuch as she had not married a forrainer, but an Englishman, then whom she knew not any of more noble blood, nor more worthy of her in all Britaine. But it seemed strange to her that she should not keepe the Lord Darly with her, whom she had joyned unto her in holy wedlocke; or should not stay Lenox in Scotland, who was a native Earle of Scotland. As for Murray, whom she had found her most mortall enemy, she lovingly intreateth her to leave her subjects to her owne judgement, for shee intermeddled not in causes of the subjects of England. With this answer Tamworth returned having received intertainement smally to his worth, as he thought; for, being a man of a busie tongue, he had blotted the Queene of Scots reputation with I know not what obloquie, and vouchsafed not her husband the Title of King.
8. At this time these things following fell out for the increase of Queene Elizabeths honour, that by meanes of the consenting voyce and report of all men touching her vertue, Cecily the sister of Erric King of Swethland [Sweden], and wife of Christopher Marquesse of Baden, being now great with childe, came a long journey from the farthermost parts of the North thorow Germany to see her; whom with her husband she honourably intertained, assigning unto her a yeerly pension, and Christening her sonne, whom she named Edwardus Fortunatus; and Donald Mac-Carty More, a great and mighty Lord of Ireland, upon his knees delivered into her very hands large territories, that receiving them backe againe from her, he might hold them in fee ot him and his heires male lawfully begotten. And for default of such heires, hee granted them to the Crown of England. She of her courtesie most graciously embracing him (as shee was a Prince born to winne the love of men) did in her wisedome invest him solemnly with the Title of Earle of Glencarne, and his sonne Teg with the Title of Baron of Valentia, gave them gifts, and bore the charges of their journey, that she might have them instruments against Desmond, who was now suspected to practice some innovation.
9. This yeere Sir Nicholas Arnold of Glocestershire, Knight, governed Ireland with the Title of Lord Justicer, and had not above 1590 men in Garrisons; but he being soone called home, delivered up his charge to Sir Henry Sidney, who in the Raigne of Queene Mary had beene for a while Justicer and Treasurer of Ireland, and was now President of Wales. The first Presidents of Ireland, whom now we call in Latin Pro-reges, that is, Vice-royes, or Deputies, were (that I may note it by the way) from the first entrance of the English under Henry the second till King Edward the third’s dayes called Justicers of Ireland, and Justicers and Keepers of the Land of Ireland; then Lieutenants, and their Vice-regent Deputies. Afterward, they were at the Prince his pleasure tearmed sometimes Deputies, sometimes Justicers, and sometimes Lieutenants (which is a little more honour), but for the most part with one and the same authority. And without doubt those first Justicers of Ireland (as the Justicer of England, who in that age was also for brevity called Justice) were ordained for keeping of the peace, and ministring of Justice to all and every person; as were the Propraetors and Proconsuls in old time among the Romanes, which were sent into a Providence with highest command.
10. Sidney having taken the charge upon him, found Munster the South part of Ireland most confused, Girald Earle of Desmond, who had religiously promised all duties of a faithfull subject, and Thomas Earle of Ormond, and others, being in hot combustion amongst themselves, and breaking forth into Civill warres. Insomuch as the Queen, to take away the strife, sent for Desmond into England, and ordained a President to minister Justice thorowout that Province, with an Assistant, two Lawyers, and a Clerke. And for first President she names Sir Warham Saint-Leger, a man of long practice and experience in Irish matters.
11. In the midst of October this yeere, Sir Thomas Chaloner rendered his soule to God, being lately returned from his Embassie in Spaine, a man very famous, borne in London, and brought up in Cambridge, who had devoted himselfe as well to the Muses as to Mars. Being a young man, he served under Charles the fifth in the expedition of Algier, where being shipwrack’t, after he had swumme till his strength and his armes failed him, at the length catching hold of a cable with his teeth he escaped, not without the losse of some of this teeth. In the Raigne of Edward the sixth at Musselborough field, he fought so manfully that the Duke of Somerset Knighted him. Under Queene Elizabeth he went on an honourable Embassie to the Emperour Ferdinand, and was ordinary Ambassadour in Spaine almost foure yeeres, where in a pure and learned verse he compose five bookes De Republica Anglorum Instauranda, whilest (as he said) hee lieved, Hieme in furno, aestate in horreo, that is, In Winter in a stoove, in Summer in a barne. He was buryed in Pauls Church in London, with a sumptuous funerall according to his worth, whereat was present as chiefe mourner Cecyl, for that his sonne Thomas, who was afterward Governour to Henry Prince of Wales, was not then growne up.