- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1560
NO sooner was the Duke of Norfolke come into Barwick, but presently there resort unto him James the Bastard, Prior of Saint Andrewes, the Baron of Rethuen, and others, who in the name of the Duke of Chastel-herault and the Confederates made a League with him in the name of the Queene of England, to this effect: Whereas the French goe about against all right and reason to subdue Scotland, and unite it to the Scepter of France, the Queene of England shall take the Duke of Chastel-herault, heire apparent to the Crowne of Scotland, and the ScotÝish Nobility and people into her protection, as long as the French King hath Mary Queene of Scots in marriage, and a yeere after. She shall send an Army by Sea and land with all warlike provision to expell and exclude the French, but with condition that Scotland may enjoy her ancient liberty. The Forts and strong holds recovered by ayd of the English from the French shall forthwith be razed, or else delivered into the hands of the Duke of Norfolke, at his choice. The English shall fortifie no place in Scotland, but by consent of the Duke of Chastel-herault and the Nobility of Scotland. The Confederates shall ayd the English all they can. They shall hold for enemies all whosoever shall be enemies to the English. They shall not suffer the Kingdome of Scotland to be united to France by any other meanes then as they are now conjoyned by marriage. If England is invaded by the French on this side of the River Tine, the Scots shall send 2000 Horse and 1000 Foot under the Queene of Englands pay. But if it be invaded beyond the Tine, they shall joyn with the English to assist them with all the power they can make, and that at their owne charges, the space of thirty dayes, as they use to doe for the defence of Scotland. The Earle of Argile Justicer Generall of Scotland shall doe his best that the North part of Ireland be reduced into order, upon certaine conditions, on which the Lieutenant of Ireland and he shall agree. Finally it is prescribed what both of them shall performe, in case Mac-Conel or other Hebridians shall attempt any thing in Scotland, or Ireland. For confirmation of these Articles before such time as the English Army enter into Scotland, hostages shall be sent into England to bee changed every six or fourth moneth, at the choice of the Scots, during the marriage betwixt the French King and the Queene of Scots, and a yeere after. The Duke of Chastel-herault and the Confederate Earles and Parliamentary Barons shall ratifie these Articles by their hands and Seales within twenty dayes; and withall (forasmuch as the Queene of England undertaketh these things in no other respect then in regard of amity and neighbourhood, to defend the Scots from the yoke of servitude), they shall make declaration that they will yeeld obedience to the Queene of Scots and the King her husband in all things which shall not make for the taking away of their ancient liberty.
2. And now by sundry messages from forraine Princes, and by Letters intercepted, it came to be knowne for certaine that the French were determined to invade England. And withall, Sebastian Matigues, a very noble young Gentleman of the house of Luxemburg, arrived in Scotland with a thousand Foot, all old Souldiers, and one or two Cornets of Horse. D’Oisely a Frenchman, who was of inward Councell with the Lady Regent of Scotland, being too confident, propounded to the Nobility of Scotland at Aimouth neere Barwick that they would now with joynt Forces put the King and Queene of Scots in possession of England. But they, well knowing the difficulty of the matter, refused it. Neverthelesse the sound counsell of the Lady Regent hardly restrained Martigues, who youthfully insulted, and was inflamed with heate to invade England. But that heate was soone cooled when the Marquesse of Albeuf, who set sayle toward Scotland with greater Forces, having strived with the violence of a tempest upon the coast of Holland, was with the losse of some shippes and many men driven backe to Diepe, from whence he had put to Sea.
3. There was come now into England from the Spaniard one Philip Stavely à Glason, Knight of the Golden Fleece and Master of the munition, to lay open the complaints of the French against the Queene concerning the matters of Scotland, and to perswade a peace and concord in the King his Masters name. Neverthelesse he secretly warned the Queene to proceed resolutely in her enterprize in Scotland, although the Spaniard on the contrary openly prohibited the transportation of her provision for warre into England which she made at Antwerp, so as she was faine to make new provision thereof out of Germany. Neither was it without suspition, which Stavely propounded, that certain Companies of Spaniards might bee sent into Scotland, which joyning with the French might represse the Scottish Rebels, and withall hold backe the French if they should attempt any thing against England. All this while Michael Seury the French Kings Ordinary Ambassadour sundry times sollicited the Queene to call home her Fleete and Army out of Scotland. Neither did she refuse it, so as the French might likewise be called home. But delayes being sought on both sides, the matter was put off from day to day until Jean Monluke Bishop of Valence, a man not averse from the Protestants profession, came out of France, who when he was come hither, answered that he had no Commission for this matter. Neverthelesse, being a man of very eloquent speech, hee perswaded all he could that the Army and Fleete might be called home out of Scotland, and maintained stiffly that the bearing of the Armes of England was no wayes prejudiciall to the Queene, but rather an honour to the Royall blood of England. But when he could neither perswade this later, which seemed absurd, nor the other, which was thought dangerous, Seury requested Stavely and the Bishop of Aquila, the Spaniards Ordinary Ambassadour in England, that they would be present as witnesses what time he should protest against the Queene for breach of the League of peace; which they refused because they had no warrant thereunto. He nevertheless protested in a very long Oration. To whom an answer was delivered being published in print, wherein shee Protesteth to the whole world, that the breaking of the Leagues, and all the causes of the warre, had proceeded altogether from the French, and that nothing could befall her more grievous, nothing more odious then this warre, and other such like matters, which may be easily gathered by that which hath beene spoken already, and by another writing set forth before, wherein she declared That though she had received most unworthy injuries, the Title and Armes of her Kingdome being usurped, yet could she never be brought to believe that this was done by the assent of the King or Queene of France, or the Princes of the blood, but by the bad practices of the Guises, who abusing the wealth of the King and of the French, were now ready to wound England through the sides of the Scots. But for her part shee could not be carelesse of her owne and her peoples safety. And questionlesse the Guises out of their love to the Queene of Scots their niece, and hatred to Queene Elizabeth for Religions sake, and ambition to deserve well of France, by joyning unto it new Kingdomes, bent themselves with might and maine to worke the destruction of Queene Elizabeth, relying upon the promises of some English that were averse from the Protestants Religion. But the grudges and heart-burnings, which arose in France about the translating of the publicke Government of the State from the Princes of the blood to the Guises, diverted them, and so she maturely and circumspectly opposed her selve against the hostile designs of them and other, that from his time she was to her friends an admiration, and a terrour to her foes.
4. The same day that Grey entered into Scotland with an Army, Seury and Monluke exceedingly urged to have the Army called home againe, putting the Queene in hope of the restitution of Calice [Calais], in case shee would revoke the same. She answered flatly that she little esteemed Calice a poore fisher Towne, in comparison of the safety and security of all Britaine. And the very same day she sent into Spaine Antony Browne Viscount Montacute, a man of singular wisedome, but most devoted to the Romish Religion, and one that in that respect would be the more welcome to the Spaniard; who with Sir Thomas Chamberlaine, her Ambassadour Legier there, should amongst other things enforme the Spaniard for how just causes shee had sent an Army into Scotland, namely the same which I have delivered already; and should also shew thim that the Queene of Scots, a sickly young woman, was marryed in France to a sickly King without hope of issue; that by the practices of the Guises a plot was laid to intrap Hamilton Duke of Chastel-herault (who was by authority of Parliament declared heire apparent to the Crowne of Scotland) and his sonne that was travelling in France; that their designes tended to the joyning of the Crowne of Scotland to the Kingdome of France, and not to preserve it for the Queene; which of how dangereous consequence it might be to his Netherland Provinces, and to Spaine, hee might himselfe seriously consider. On the other side, that the Confederacy of the Nobility of Scotland was not to be branded with the note of Rebellion, which was made to no other purpose then to preserve the Kingdome (as in duty they ought) to the Queene and her lawfull successours, which they could not, without injury to themselves and theirs, suffer to be underminded by the practices of the Guises, or transferred to the French.
5. In the beginning of Aprill, the English Army, wherein were 1200 Horse and 6000 Foote, approached neere Leith. This Towne is situated upon Edinborough Firth, the greatest Estuary or in-let of the Sea in all Britaine, where the River Leith emptieth it selfe with a wide mouth, and yeeldeth a commodious harbour for shipping, scarce two miles from Edinborough the chiefest City in Scotland, and for this commodiousnesse of the situation, the French had fortified it for a refuge and receptacle to let in their auxiliary Forces. Martigues, drawing forth his Companies of Foot, chargeth the English that first approched, that thereby he might keepe them from a hill where he thought they would intrench themselves; but after they had skirmished about the space of foure houres, some being slaine on both sides, he was beaten backe into the Towne. Then a Trench was drawne, and mounts cast up, from whence, no lesse then from the ships, they thundered into the Towne every day. The French now and then sallyed forth with more courage then strength, and gave many proofes of their valour. Amongst other times, they wonne the Trench the 15th of Aprill, cloyed [spiked] three great Peeces, and tooke Sir Maurice Barkley prisoner. But Sir James à Croftes and Cuthbert Vaghan soone drove them out and beat them backe into the Towne, not without slaughter of their men. At which time Arthur Grey, sonne to the Lord Grey who commanded in the Army in Chiefe, was shot in the shoulder. Then the Camp removed neere unto the Towne, for that the great shot by reason of the long distance between, fell many times short. Shortly after, by sudden casualty of fire, some part of the Towne, and certaine garners [barns] took fire to the great terrour of the Townsmen; which fire the English increased by bending their great Ordnance to that part, and in the meane time entring the ditches, they measured the height of the walls. The 6th of May (as was agreed by common consent betweene the English and the Scots) they laboured with their whole strength most sharply to scale and winne the walls; but for that their ladders were too short, and the water by stopping of the sluice very deepe, they were beaten backe, being over-charged with a multitude of small shot from above, very many slaine, and more hurt. The blame of this over-throw lighted upon Croftes, for that he, as if misliking the attempt (whether out of judgment, or favour towards the French, or malice against Grey, I cannot say), had stood an idle spectator in the Quarter assigned him, and had not relieved them that were distressed. Certainely Norfolk and Grey privily accused him by their Letters to the Queene, not onely in this respect, but also that he had held secret counsels with the Lady Regent of Scotland, and opposed himselfe against this expedition. Whereupon being afterwards called in question in the Councell Chamber, he was removed from his government of Barwick, and Grey substituted in his place. Neverthelesse he lost not the Queenes favour, who afterwards made him (and that worthily) Controller of her Houshold. The English and Scottish mens minds being dejected with this first ill fortune, Norfolke presently confirmed them by sending new supplyes to relieve them. Then they sought by light skirmishes, untill the French King being advertised that his men were shut up at Leith in such sort that all passages both by sea and land were stopped and could not well be relieved, by reason of the long distance, and that seditions at home increased daily, graunted authority to the Bishop of Valence and Charles Rochfoucald Randan to compound the matter with Queene Elizabeths Commissioners; who presently sent into Scotland William Cecyl and Nicholas Wotton Deane of Canterbury and Yorke. For the King and Queene of France and Scotland were pleased to descend beneath their Majestie to an equall debating of matters with their own subjects. What time Murray propounded such things, as Cecyl judged neither meete to be propounded by subjects, nor by Princes to be granted. During this parley dyed Mary of Loraine, the Queenes mother and Regent of Scotland, a Religious and prudent Princesse, having been spightfully used with unworthy reproaches by certaine hot-spirited Preachers (as in their owne Ecclesiasticall History of Scotland, which Queene Elizabeth suppressed at the Presse, is to bee seene), and also by the Masters of the Congregation, who as Native Councellours of the Realme had in the Queene of Scots and her husbands name suspended her by their owne authority from all government, as one that repugned against the glory of God and the Scottish liberty.
6. The articles agreed upon by the Commisioners the third moneth after the siege began, are these.
The Treaty of peace in the Castle of Cambray betweene Queene Elizabeth and Henry the second of France shall be renewed and confirmed.
The Treaty there likewise betwixt England and Scotland shall be ratified.
Preparations for warre on both sides shall cease.
The Fort at Aymouth in Scotland shall be razed.
The King of France and Queene Mary shall abstaine from the Title and Armes of England and Ireland.
The debating upon caution for the fifth Article is referered to another meeting to be holden at London. And if then it cannot be agreed, it shall be committed to the Catholike King.
The King and Queene shall be reconciled with the Noblemen of Scotland their subjects.
The Confederates, especially the King Catholicke, shall be comprehended.
This Treaty shall bee confirmed within sixty dayes, and an oath taken on both sides for confirmation thereof.
7. This peace was published in the Campe and Towne, to the generall rejoycing of all men, forasmuch as they were all weary of the warre, the English of wasting the Country round about, the French for lacke of victuals and provision, and the Scots for want of pay. And certainely this peace was holden to be commodious for all Britaine, whereby the ancient libertie of Scotland was retained, the dignity of England preserved, and security obtained, which from that time feared nothing from Scotland, inasmuch as the English joyfully acknowledged Queene Elizabeth to bee the foundresse of their security, and the Scottish Protestants as gladly acknowledged her Defendresse of their liberty.
8. She out of her singular love to her Country, was all this while so attentive to the publicke good, that in the meane time shee almost quite put out of her minde the love of potent Princes. For at the same time there sought to her for marriage Charles Archduke of Austria, a younger sonne of the Emperour Ferdinand, by mediation of the Count of Elphenstein; James Earle of Arain, commended by the Protestants in Scotland with purpose to unite by him the divided Kingdomes of England and Scotland, which purpose was soone rejected with commendation of the man; Erric King of Swethland [Sweden], by means of John his brother Duke of Finland, whom Gustavus their father had sent a little before into England for that purpose, having the more hope to speed, for that he was of the same Religion with her, and that with such a credulous importunity that he determined to come himselfe to England, notwithstanding that the Dane in his hostile minde towards him was purposed to intercept him, who thought it stood not with his good that England and Swithland (betweene which two Denmark lyeth) should be united by marriage. His great and singular love she acknowledged and commended. She answered he should be welcome, but she could not yet perswade her minde to change her single life, most pleasing to her, for a married life. She prayed him therefore to try her kindnesse in any other matter, and though hee sped not in his suite, yet hee would not thinke his love ill bestowed. She advised him also that he would not long deferre the choosing of a wife, and wished he might obtaine one most worthy of himselfe. With such answers John Duke of Finland returned home the sixth moneth after, when hee had left no means untryed to advaunce the marriage, wooing the Queene every day, giving liberally to the Courtiers, and alluring the love of the meanest, among whom many times he cast silver money, saying that his brother, when he came, would distribute gold amongst the people. His brother notwithstanding, being suspicious of him, intreated him hardly at his comming home, as if he had wooed her for himselfe, and persevering in his purpose, ceased not to woo her for almost two yeeres together, sending conditions by Nicholas Guldenstein. And withall (such was his inconsiderate lightnesse), he sued for Philip the Landtgrave of Hesse his daughter to wife, by whom also being rejected, he married with a young woman of meane condition.
9. But Charles of Austria hoped and expected that the house of Austria, which had beene most fortunate by matching with the greatest Princesses, should be greatened by the addition of England, and also that by him the old Religion should be, if not revoked, yet at the least-wise tolerated. Neither did Queene Elizabeth at the first dash cut off his hope. For she made shewe openly, and protested before Elphenstein, and by Letters to the Emperour, that amongst many most honorable matches propounded, none was more honorable then this with Charles of Austria. But yet neither the storme of danger before, nor the same gale of honour now, could not remove her from her course of life begunne; yet not so farre, that she would flatly renounce a wedded life. And she assuredly hoped that God, upon whose bounty she relyed wholy, would in these and other matters direct her counsels to her owne and her peoples safety. Adolph also Duke of Holstein, Uncle to Frederic the second, King of Denmark, being excited thereunto by the Dane, to the end to breake off the marriage with the Swethian, came into England, being also rap’t with the hope of marriage by occasion of a Letter, wherein Queene Elizabeth had wished, that he were joyned to the English, in the same neerenesse as hee had beene in time past to Spaniards, and most lovingly promised him kindnesse. To whom, after most honourable welcome, she bountifully gave the honour of the Garter, and a yeerely pension, and by her singular kindnesse bound the Prince unto her, a Prince that had gotten great glory by the warres, having of late conquered the Dithmarsians.
10. And at home also there were not lacking some which (as Lovers use to doe) feigned unto themselves vaine dreames of marrying with her, namely, Sir William Pickering Knight, who had some nobility of birth, a meane estate, but some honour by his studies of good Artes, elegancy of life, and Embassies in France and Germany; Henry Earle of Arundell, a man of a very ancient nobility, great wealth, but of declining age; and Robert Dudley the Duke of Northumberlands younger sonne, who was restored in blood by Queene Mary, a man of a flourishing age, and comely feature of body and limbes, whose father and grand-father were not so much hated of the people, but he was as much favoured by Queene Elizabeth through her rare and Royall clemency, who heaped honours upon him, saving his life whose father would have had her destroyed. Whether this proceeded from any vertue of his, whereof he gave some shadowed tokens, or from their common condition of imprisonment under Queene Mary, or from his nativity, and the hidden consent of the starres at the houre of his birth, and thereby a most straight conjunction of their mindes, a man cannot easily say. (Certainly the inclinations of Princes to some men, and their disfavour towards others, may seeme fatall.) For a beginning of honour, and first agreement of kindnesse, having made him Master of the horse, shee chose him (to the admiration of all men) in the first yeere of her Raigne into the Order of the Garter, which amongst the English is most honorable, together with the Duke of Norfolk, the Marquesse of Northampton, and the Earle of Rutland.
11. In Spaine in the meane time, the Lord Vicount Montacute layeth open before the King the necessity of the Scottish warre, cleereth all he can the Scots from the note of rebellion, by proofes hee coldly shewed (as one that was a most devout follower of the Romish Religion) that no other Religion was brought into England then that which was consonant with the holy Scriptures and the foure first oecumenicall Councils, and requireth that the League of Burgundy, made of old between the Kings of England and the King of Spaines forefathers, may be renewed. The Spaniard answereth that the renewing of the League was needless (whereas notwithstaning the renewing of Leagues is much in use amongst Princes, which putteth as it were life into the Leagues themselves, and witnesseth their mutuall kindnesse to the whole world, and he himselfe and his father Charles, in the Treaty of marriage with Queene Mary of England in the yeere 1553, had bound themselves to confirme the said League). He bewailed the change of Religion in England, grieveth at the sending of the Army to Scotland and the relieving of Rebels, and complaineth that he was not acquainted with these things till it was too late. Neverthelesse he ceased not to oppose himselfe secretly against the practices of the French, who sought to have Queene Elizabeth excommunicated, and wrought by his Agents at Rome that she might not be stricken with the Ecclesiasticall censure without his consent. Hee gave secret warning also for his owne advantage, but too late, that it should bee inserted in the Articles with the French that it might bee lawfull for the English to drive the French out of Scotland if they should returne againe, and that caution should be interposed in plaine words for the restoring of Calice. The Vicount notwithstanding discovered that he was offended in minde, and the Queene also perceived it, both by that which I have spoken, and especially by the redelivery of the ensignes of the Order of Saint George into the Vicounts hands; for hereby he seemed quite to renounce the amity with the English. But more offended for a repulse which he afterwards received, when he made intercession in England by his Ambassadour (through the procurement of the Count of Feria, who had marryed the daughter of William Dormer by Mary Sidney), that Jane Dormer, the daughter of Thomas Newdigate, widow of Sir Robert Dormer Knight, and grand-mother to the Countesse of Feria; Clarentia, a little old woman, which had beene very inward with Queene Mary, and the distributer of her private almes to poore women; Richard Chelley, called afterwards the Prior of the Order of Saint John in England; and Thomas Harney, men most devoted to the Popish Religion, and most deare to the Spaniard, might with good leave remaine in the Netherlands and Spaine, whither they had withdrawne themselves for Religions sake without licence. For by the ancient Lawes of England it was provided under paine of confiscation of goods and lands, that none but the great Noblemen of the Land, and Marchants, should without the Kings specall licence depart the Realme, nor abide in forraine Countries beyond a time prefixed, and this, either for the recovery of their health in a hote climate, or for the more plentifull adorning of their wits in the Universities, or else to learne the discpline of the warres, and (as she wrote backe to the Spaniard), it was without example, that suche a licence should be graunted to women, of perpetuall absence from their country. And though the thing it selfe, in it selfe seemed a matter of no moment, yet fearing they should not receive so much good thereby for their owne private benefite and commodity, as others might take courage by the example to the hurt of the Common-wealth, she thought it a hing not to be graunted. The Count of Feria itnerpreting this to be done in injurty to him, lest he should let it goe unavenged, forcibly drew a servant of Chamberlains, the English Ordinary Ambassadour in Spain, into the Inquisition, as guilty of heresie, and being discontented with the Queene, and the English, he kindled the coales of the displeased Kings minde, his wife in vaine labouring to the contrary. Yea, it is also reported, that he dealt with Pius Quartus Bishop of Rome new elect, to have her excommunicate. But he (upon what hope I know not) sent unto her Vincentio Parpalia Abbot of Saint Saviours, with secret instructions and Letters of flattery, which I will here set wholly as they are, though to some I may seeme to offend against the lawes of an History.
TO OUR MOST DEAR DAUGHTER IN CHRIST, ELIZABETH QUEENE OF ENGLAND
Our most deare daughter in Christ, greeting and Apostolicall benediction. How greatly wee doe desire (according as our pastorall Office requireth) to take care of your salvation, and to provide as well for your honour and the establishment of your Kingdome, both God the searcher of our hearts knoweth, and you your selfe may understand by the instructions which wee have given to this our beloved son Vincentio Parpalia, Abbot of Saint Saviour, a man knowne unto you, and of us well approved, to be by him imparted to you. Wee doe therefore (most deare daughter) exhort and admonish your Highnesse againe and againe that rejecting bad Counsellours, which love not you but themselves, and serve their owne desires, you would take the feare of God to counsell, and acknowledging the time of your visitation, obey our fatherly admonitions, and wholesome advices; and promise to your selfe all things concerning us, which you shall desire of us, not onely for the salvation of your soule, but also for the establishment and confirming of your Royall dignity, according to the authority, place, and function committed unto us by God, who, if you returne into the bosome of the Church (as we wish and hope you will) are ready to receive you with the same love, honour, and rejoycing, wherewith that father in the Gospell receiveth his sonne that returned unto him; although our joy shall be so much the greater then his, in that hee rejoyced for the salvation of one onely sonne, but you drawing with you all the people of England, shall not onely by your owne salvation, but also by the salvation of the whole Nation, replenish us and all our brethren in generall (whom, God willing, you shall heare shortly to be congregated in an Oecumenicall and generall Councill for abolishing of heresies) and the whole Church with joy and gladnesse; yea, you shall also glad heaven it selfe, and purchase by so memorable a fact admirable glory to your name and much more resplendent then that Crowne you weare. But of this matter the same Vincention shall treat with you more at large, and shall declare unto you our fatherly affection, whom wee pray your Highnesse that you will graciously receive, indulgently heare, and give the same credit to his speech, which you would doe to our selfe. Given at Rome at Saint Peters etc. the 15th day of May 1650 in our first yeere.
12. What matters Parpalia propounded I finde not, for I doe not think his Instructions were put in writing, and to rove at them with the common sort of Historians I list not. That Queene Elizabeth still persisted like her selfe, semper eadem, alwaies the same, and that the matter succeeded not to the Popes desire, all men know. The report goeth that the Pope gave his faith, that hee would disanull the Sentence against her mothers marriage as unjust, confirme the English Liturgie by his authority, and graunt the use of the Sacraments to the English under both kindes, so as she would joyne her selfe to the Romish Church, and acknowledge the Primacy of the Chaire of Rome; yea, and that certaine thousand Crownes were promised to those that should procure the same.
13. Now was the time come for confirmation of the Treaty of Edinborough; which when Queene Elizabeth had duely confirmed by solemne oath, and sent over the same to the King and Queene of France, that they likewise according to the Covenant should ratifie it, Throckmorton the Ambassadour Legier in France could by no meanes perswade them to it; no more could Sir Peter Mewtas Knight, who was afterward sent into France for that purpose, notwithstanding that in the Commission, wherein the said Bishop of Valence was authorised to enter into the said Confederacy, they had promised in expresse words that the would confirme the same bone fide, and on the word of a King. Why they refused to confirme it, they alleaged the causes. For that the Scots had entred into the Conferacy of Barwick with the English, not by Royall authority, but by their owne, which they ought not to have done, for that it was entered into by Rebels, and signed with the counterfeit Seales and subscriptions of their faithfull subjects; and for that they had not performed the obedience promised in the said Confederacy. Whilest these things are debated, Francis the second King of France departed this life before he was full eighteene yeeres of age, in the second yeere of his Raigne, leaving the Queene of Scots a widow, whether to the greater griefe of the Papists, or joy of the Protestants thorowout all Britaine, I cannot say.
14. Queene Elizabeth being now more secure, to the end that the Church might both continue uncorrupted, and also be propagated, and that the Common-wealth might the more flourish in glory and riches, set forth two wholesome Proclamations. By the one she commanded the Anabaptists and such like heretikes, which had flocked to the coast Townes of England from the parts beyond the sea, under colour of shunning persecution, and had spred the poyson of their sects in England, to depart the Realme within twenty dayes, whether they were naturall borne people of the Land or foreigners, upon paine of imprisonment and losse of goods. By the other she restrained a sacrilegious kinde of people, which under pretence of abolishing superstitions, began to demolish ancient Tombes, to raze and deface the Epitaphs, and Coat-armours of most noble families, and other monuments of venerable Antiquity, which had remained after the furie of prophane men under King Henry the eighth and Edward the sixth, and take the Bells out of the Churches, and to pluck off the lead from the Church roofes.
15. The Abbey also of Westminster, most renowned for the inauguration of the Kings of England, their Sepulture and the keeping of the Regall Ensignes, she converted to a Collegiate Church; and there she instituted to the glory of God, and increase of good literature, a Deane, twelve Prebendaries, a Schoole-master, an Usher, forty Schollers (called the Queenes Schollers, whereof sixe or more are preferred every yeere to the Universities), Ministers, Singing-Men, twelve Almes men, etc., and this certainely with happy increase of learned men both for the Church and Common-wealth.
16. And (which turned to her greater, yea greatest glory) she began by little and little to take away the brasse money, and restore good money of cleane silver, for the repairing of the glory of the Kingdome, and to prevent the fraud of those few which embased [debased] monies both at home and abroad, exchanged the best commodities of the Land for base monyes, and exported the currant money into foraine Countries, and also for the abating of the prices of things vendible, which were very much raised to the great damage of the Common-wealth, and especially of such as received stipends, Souldiers, servants, and all that tooke dayes wages for their labour. And this she happily performed within a few moneths without commotion, first by prohibiting any man, at any time, to melt either good or brazen money, or to carry it out of the Kingdome; then, by reducing the brasse money to his just value, the brazen penny to an halfe-penny farthing, the quoyne of two pence to three halfe pence, the Teston of sixe pence to foure pence, another Teston to two pence farthing, for more silver there was not in them; and lastly, by buying in the same from the owners of good money (but not without losse to her selfe) if it were brought into the mint within certain dayes prefixed. So as to Queene Elizabeth it is prescribed that there hath beene better and purer money in England then was seene in two hundred yeeres before, or hath been else-where in use thorowout all Europe. And within a while after, she stamped good money (which we call Sterling) for the kingdom of Ireland, of such value that the Shilling should be worth twelve pence in Ireland, and nine pence in England. Certainely this was a great and memorable act, which neither King Edward the sixth could, nor Queene Mary durst doe, after that King Henry the eighth had first of all the Kings of England mixed the money with brasse, to the great dishonour of the Kingdome, the damage of his successors and people, leaving thereby a notable example of ryot and prodigality, considering that his father left him more wealth then any other King of England ever left to his successor, very much he gathered by taxes and tributes (and yet we may not believe Cardinall Poole, who hath written that he exacted more then all the Kings since the Norman Conquest), and infinite riches he scraped together, when by Act of Parliament he seized upon all the livings in Ireland, which the English held being absent, all the first fruits and Tenths of Ecclesiasticall benefits in England and Ireland, and upon all the rents, livings, and goods of Abbies and Monasteries.
17. This was the last yeere of Francis Hastings Earle of Huntingdon, the second Earle of that stocke, who begate on Catherine Poole, daughter of Henry Baron Montacute, brother to Reginald Poole Cardinall, Henry his successor, and many other children in brotherly love agreeing, but not in Religion.
18. In Ireland, Shan or John O-Neal, a Nobleman of very great power in Ulster, the true and lawfull sonne of Con O-Neal, surnamed Bacco, that is, The Lame (whom King Henry the eighth had created Earle of Tir-Oen), when he had made away Matthew Baron of Dungannon his base brother, thought falsely to be a legitimate sonne, had despoiled his father of all rule, who dyed soone after for griefe, and by a barbarous kinde of election throwing up his shoo over his head, had taken upon the Title of O-Neal, fearing now lest the Law would take hold on him, brake forth in open Rebellion. Whereupon five hundred Foot were sent out of England, and certaine Troopes of Horse leaved in Ireland. But after light skirmishes, when he saw himselfe too weake for the English and hated of his owne, hee layed downe Armes (being perswaded thereunto by the Earle of Kildare, his kinsman), and promised to come into England to beg his pardon, which also he did, as in proper place we will declare.