- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1559
IN the beginning of the new yeere the Queene anew created William Parr Marquesse of Northamton, who in Queene Maries dayes was put from his degree for treason by Edward Seimore, who by a private Lawe had through the malice of his adversaries, been despolyled of a great part of his inheritance and of his fathers honours, she raised to the Barony of Beauchamp and Earledome of Hertford Thomas Howard, the second sonne of Thomos Duke of Norfolke; shee dignified with the honour of Viscount Howard of Bindon, and Henry Cary of Hunston, her Cousin German by Mary Bolen, and Oliver Saint John of Bletnesshe, with title of Barons, all which were adverse from the Papist Religion. And now is she brought with Royall pompe from the Tower of London, thorough the midst of the City to Westminster, with incredible applause (which by her sweet contenance and gracious speech she increased above measure), where the next day after the Rites of her fathers she is inaugurate and anointed by Oglethorp Bishop of Carlisle, for that the Archbishop of Yorke and the rest of the Bishops refused to performe that office out of a suspicious and jealous feare of the Roman Religion, which both her first breeding up in the Protestant Religion had stricken them into, and also for that shee had very lately forbidden the Bishops in saying Masse to lift up the Host to be adored, and permitted the Letany with the Epistle and Gospell to be read in the vulgar tongue, which they held for most heinous sinne. Yet was she truely religious, who every day as soone as shee arose spent some time in prayers to God, and afterwards at set houres in her private Chappell; every Sunday and Holiday shee went unto her Chappell; neither was there ever any other Prince present at Gods Service with greater devotion. The Sermons in Lent attentively heard, being all in blacke after the manner of old, although she many times said (as she had read of Henry the third her Predecessor) that she had rather talke with God devoutly by prayer then heare others speake eloquently of God. But concerning the Crosse, the blessed Virgin, and the Saints, she had no contemptuous opinion, or ever spake of them but with reverence, nor suffered others patiently to speak unreverently of them.
2. Some few dayes after her Coronation a Parliament was holden, wherein it was first by generall voyce of all men enacted that the Lady Elizabeth was, and (to use the very words of the Statute) Ought by the Law of God, the Common Law of England, and the Statutes of the Realme, to be the lawfull, undoubted, and most certaine Queene of England, and was justly and lawfully issued from the blood Royall, according to the order of succession prescribed by the Estates of the Realme in the thirty fifth yeere of Henry the eighth. Neverthlesse the Statute wherin her father had excluded her and Queene Mary from the succession of the Crowne was not repealed. Wherein Bacons wisdome (upon whom as the Oracle of the Law the Queene wholy relyed in such matters) in some mens opinion failed him, especially considering that Northumberland had objected it against Queene Mary and her (and in that respect Queene Mary had repealed it as farre as concerned herselfe), and some seditious persons afterward tooke occasion thereby to attempt dangerous matters against her, as not being lawfully Queene, albeit that the English Lawes have long since pronounced That the Crowne once worne quite taketh away all defects whatsoever. But by others, this was imputed to Bacons wisedome, who in so great perplexity and inconstancy of Acts and Statutes, whereas those things that made for Queene Elizabeth seemed to be joyned with the ignominy and disgrace of Queene Mary, would not new-gall the sore which was with age over-skinned, and therefore applyed himselfe unto that Act of the 35th yeere of Henry the eighth, which in a manner provided for both their fames and dignities alike.
3. Then in this Parliament, after other matters, an Act was made for restoring the Crowne of England to the former Jurisdiction in matters Ecclesiasticall: to wit, by renewing the Lawes of Henry the eighth against the See of Rome, and of Edward the sixth for the Protestants, which Lawes were repealed by Queene Mary, and also by enacting That whatsoever Jurisdictions, Priviledges, and Spirituall determinations had beene heretofore in use by any Ecclesiasticall authority whatsoever to visite Ecclesiasticall men, and correct all manner of errors, heresies, schismes, abuses, and enormities, should be for ever annexed to the Imperiall Crowne of England; that the Queene and her successors might by their letters Patents substitute certaine men to exercise that authority; howbeit with the proviso that they should define noithing to be heresie, but those things were long before defined to bee heresies out of the sacred Canonical Scriptures, or the foure first Oecumenicall Councels, or other Councels, by the true and proper sence of the holy Scriptures, or should thereafter be so defined by authority of the Parliament with assent of the Clergie of England assembled in a Synode; that all and every Ecclesiasticall persons, Magistrates, receivers of Pensions out of the Exchequer, such as were to receive degrees in the Universities, Wards that were to sue their liveries and to be invested in their livings, and such as were to bee admitted into the number of the Queenes servants etc., should be tyed by oath to acknowledge the Queenes Majestie to bee the onely and Supreme Governour of her Kingdomes (the title of Supreme Head of the Church of England like them not) in all manners and causes, as well Spirituall as Temporall, all foraine Princes and Potentates being quite excluded from taking cognisance of causes within her Dominions.
4. Against these Statutes, nine Bishops in the higher House which were present that day (for now there no more but foureteene left alive) stiffly repugned, namely,
The Archbishop of Yorke - Heathe
The Bishop of London - Bonner
The Bishop of Winchester - White
The Bishop of Worcester - Pate
The Bishop of Lhandaff - Antony
The Bishop of Coventry - Bayne
The Bishop of Excester - Tubervill
The Bishop of Chester - Scot
The Bishop of Carliel - Oglethorp
And the Abbot of Westminster - Feckenham.
On the Temporall Lords not a man opposed them save onely the Earle of Shrewsbury and Antony Browne, Vicount Montacute; which Vicount the Estates of the Realme in the Raigne of Queene Mary sent to Rome, with Thurlbey Bishop of Ely, that England might be reduced into the unity of the Church of Rome and obedience to the See Apostolike. This man, out of a certain burning zeale to Religion, and regard of honour, sharply urged that it were a great dishonour to England, if it so soone revolted from the Apostolike See, to which it had of late humbly reconciled it selfe; and greater perill it would be if, excommunication being once thundred forth, it should by this defection be exposed to the futy of her neighbouring enemies. That he for his part had, by authority of the Estates of England, tendred obedience to the Bishop of Rome, and the same he could not but performe. Most earnestly therefore againe and againe he besought them that the would not fall away from the See of Rome, to which they did owe the first receiving and perpetuall conservation of the Christian faith. But when these things were propounded in the lower House, the farre major part with joynt mind gave their voyces and assent unto them, while the Papists murmured that moe of the Protestants were chosen of set purpose, both out of the Countries and also out of the Cities and Boroughs, and that the Duke of Norfolke and the Earle of Arundell, amongst the Nobility the most potent, had for their owne turne, or hope, begged voyces, as also Cecyl had done by his cunning.
5. Now when mens minds differed concerning Religion, it was by one and the same Proclamation commanded that no man should speake unreverently of the Sacrament of the Altar, and both kinds were permitted in the administration. A Conference was also appointed at Westminster betweene the Papists and the Protestants, agains the last day of March. For the Protestants are chosen
John Elmar, and
And of the Papists were chosen
John White Bishop of Winchester
Ralph Bayn Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield
Thomas Watson Bishop of Lincolne
D. Cole Dean of Pauls
D. Langdall Archdeacon of Lewis
D. Harpfield Archdeacon of Canterbury
D. Chadsey Archdeacon of Middlesex.
The questions propounded were:
1. Concerning common prayer, and administration of the Sacraments in the vulgar tongue.
2. Concerning the authority of the Church in constituting and abrogating ceremonies, to edification.
3. And concerning the sacrifice of the Masse.
But all came to nothing. For a few words passed to and fro about writing, for that they could not agree upon the manner of disputing, the Protestants triumphing as if they had gotten the victory, and the Papists complaining that they were hardly dealt withall, in that they were not forewarned of the questions above a day or two before, and that Bacon Lord Keeper of the great Seale (a man little versed in matters of Divinity, and a bitter enemy of the Papists, sate as Judge, whereas hee was onely appointed Moderator, or keeper of order). But the very truth is that they, weighing the matter more seriously, durst not without consulting the Bishop of Rome, call in question so great matters, and not controverted in the Church of Rome, exclaming every where, when shall there be any certainty touching faith? Disputations concerning Religion doe alwayes tend that way as the Scepter inclines, and suchlike. And so hot were the Bishops of Lincolne and Winchester that they thought meete that the Queene, and the authors of this falling away from the Church of Rome, should be stricken with the censure of excommunication; who for this cause were imprisoned. But the wiser sort resolved that this censure was rather to bee left to the Bishop of Rome, lest they being subjects should seeme to shake off their obedience to their Prince and take up the banner of rebellion. Neither was the Bishop of Rome ignorant of these things who, being now more stirred, commanded Sir Edward Carne a Welsh Knight and a Lawyer (who had beene Embassadour at Rome for King Henry the 8th, and Queene Mary, and now for Queene Elizabeth), to lay down his Office of Embassadour and (to use the very words themselves) by vigor of a commandement given viva voce, by the Oracles of the most holy Lord the Pope, in the vertue of his holy obedience, and under paine of the greater excommunication, and losse of all his goods and lands, not to depart the City, but to take upon him the government of the English Hospitall (indeed lest he should give intelligence of the secret practices of the French against Queene Elizabeth, which hee had carefully done before, out of love to his Country). Yet it is thought by some, that this crafty old man did voluntarily choose this banishment out of his burning zeale to the Romish Religion.
6. In the meane while (to follow the order of time, and omit for a season these Ecclesiasticall and Parliamentary matters), the Commissioners of England and Spaine which treated a Peace at Cambrey, contending hard with the French for the restitution of Calice, [Calais] could by no meanes get them to give over the same, though they offred to set off, in regard thereof, above three millions of Crownes due by the French by lawfull obligation. The Spaniard, because for his sake the English lost it, and because he forewaw that it would be for the benefit of the Netherlands that it should bee under the English Jurisdiction, truely and honestly stood for the English, otherwise hee would quite draw back from the peace. On the contrary the French opposed that Calice alone was not sufficient to recompense the damages done to the French by the English, it being their helpe that their Townes were taken by the Spaniards, many Villages of little Britaine being burnt and sacked by the English fleet, their ships taken, commerce (the strength of the Kingdome) interrupted, and an infinit masse of money spent to prohibit the landing of the English. Besides, Calice was the ancient inheritance of the Crowne of France, lost in old time by warre, and now by warre recovered, and therefore in no wise to be restored; yea, and so also the Estates of France had decreed. For to restore it were nothing else but to put a sword into the enemies hands, and to alienate for ever the hearts of the French to their King. Unjustly therefore and absurdly did the English demaund it againe. The English maintained to the contrarie, that most justly and with very great reason they demanded it, to wit, that Calice had for these one or two hundred years beene a parcell of the Kingdome of England, and purchased not onely by right of warre, but also by inheritence, and graunted by composition in lieu of certaine other places which the Kings of England had resigned. That those damages received were to be imputed to the Spaniards, who had drawne the English against their wills into this warre, by which they had received very great losse, and no commodity at all. Whatsoever the Estates of France decree, because it is gainefull to them is not therefore just. Neither could Calice be justly detained, forsasmuch as, by covenant already agreed upon, all places taken in the last warre are restored to the other Princes. The French answered that this was done in regard of marriages to be contracted betwixt the other Princes. They propounded therefore that the eldest daughter of Mary Queene of Scots by the Dolphin of France should be married to the eldest sonne of Queene Elizabeth, which daughter should have Calice for her dowry; and withall the Queene of Scots should relinquish her title which she had in England; or else that Queene Elizabeths eldest daughter should marry with the eldest sonne of the Queene of Scots, and withall the English should renounce the claime they layed on the Crowne of France, and all should be remitted which the French did owe to the English, and Calice in the meane time should remain in the French mens hands. These things as matters uncertaine and of another age, and devised onely to work delayes, the English neglected and would not harken unto. Thus farre was the matter come, when the Spaniard received intelligence that Queene Elizabeth not onely avoyded his offered marriage, but also altered and changed almost all things in Religion. From this time therefore his care for the restoring of Calice, which before seemed to be constantly settled, begain to faint; and the Spanish Delegates, impatient of delay when they and the French were in a manner agreed about all other points, pretended that they would no longer be troubled with a warre for Calice, unlesse the English would supply both money and men for a six yeeres warre, more largely then before. Thereupon the Cardinall of Lorraine, taking courage, boldly affirmed to the Spanish Delegates that the Queene of Scots his niece was the true and undoubted Queene of England; the Spaniard therefore, if he loved Justice, ought to labour that Calice might be delivered unto his niece, being most just Queene of England. This sounded not very pleasing in the Spanish eares, to whom the power of the French was suspect, and they assaied privily to withdraw out of England the Lady Katherine Grey, grand-daughter to Henry the eighths sister, that they might have one to oppose against the Queene of Scots and the French, if anything should fall out otherwise then well to Queene Elizabeth, to the end that France might not be augmented with the addition of England and Ireland. And verey stiffly they argued that a Truce might be treated between England and France, until they came to an agreement; and that Calice in the meane time might bee put into the Spaniards hands, as an indifferent Umpier and Arbitrator; which the French and no lesse the English refused.
7. These things had Queene Elizabeth understood before-hand, who having neglected the marriage with the Spaniard, and altered Religion, could hope for no good at all from the Spaniards. Shee knew also that the Treaty of Cambrey was undertaken of purpose for the rooting out of the Protestants Religion. And certainly in respect of sexe, and want of treasure, Peace seemed to her more to bee desired then the justest warre, who was wont to say, it was more glorious to establish peace with wisedome, then to make an end of warre with Armies in the field. Neither did she thinke it to stand with her dignity, or the honour of the English Nation, to rely upon the ayd of the Spaniard. She thought it therefore best to make her own peace apart, and to compound with the French about Calice, being thereunto solicited by many letters of the French King, of Montmorency Constable of France, and Francis of Vendome, and by messages from the Duke of Guise sent by the Lord Grey, who having beene taken prisoner at Guines, was set at liberty by him for that cause. For the making of this agreement, Guido Cavalcanti a Gentleman of Florence, brought up in England from his child-hood, was imployed, with whom the French King having secret conference, thought it the safest course that these things should be treated of, without the knowledge of the Spaniard, in some obscure Village of England or France, by Delegates sent privily. Contrariwise Queene Elizabeth, being a Virgin of a manly courage, professed that she was an absolute free Princesse to manage her actions by her selfe or her ministers. And though in the Raigne of her sister nothing was done without consulting the Spaniard, yet her will was that this matter should bee treated and agreed upon betwixt her Commissioners and the Commissioners of France, without acquainting the Spaniard, not in an obscure place, but at the Castle of Cambray, which is not farre from the City of Cambray. And hereby shee incurred to lesse displeasure with the Spaniard, then before for slighting his marriage and altering of Religion. Neverthelesse the French, being wise and wary, to the end to feele how she stood affected towards marriage and towards the Spaniard, requested first to be resolved of two scruples: the one, if hee should render up Calice before he knew for certaine whom the Queene would take to husband, Calice might easily fall into the Spaniards hands, who would buy it at any rate, and wives would graunt any thing to their husbands whom they loved; the other, whether the English were (as the Spaniards gave out) tyed by such a League to the Spaniards, that they were to warre with them against all people whatsoever. To these two points it was answered that the Queene bare such a motherly love to England, that she would not for her husbands sake forgoe Calice, and though she would haver so faine, yet the people of England would in no wise suffer it; that there was no such confederacy with the Spaniard, but onely an amity and friendship; and that she was most free to contract a confederacy which might bee for the benefit of England, with any Prince whatsoever. Heereupon it was thought good, that at the Castle of Cambray Commisioners on both sides should treat about compounding of controversies, and concluding a peace. For the Queene of England, Thurlby Bishop of Ely. William Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord Chamberlaine to the Queene and Nicholas Wotton Deane of the Metropolitane Churches of Canterbury and Yorke. And for the French King, Charles Cardinall of Lorraine, Archbishop and Duke of Rhemes, first Peere of France. Annas Duke of Montmorency, Peere, Constable, and great Master of France. Jaques Albon Signeur of Saint Andrew, Marquesse Frosac and Marshall of France. Jean Moruillier Bishop of Orleance, and Claud Aubespine, Secretary to the Privy Councell. Betwixt these Commissioners an agreement was made in these words, or the like in effect. Neither Prince shall invade other, or assist any which shall invade the other. If the subjects shall attempt any thing against this peace, they shall be punished, and the peace not broken. Commerce shall be freely exercised. The ships of warre, before they put to Sea, shall give security that they shall not rob the other Prince his subjects. The Fort of Aimouth in Scotland shall be razed. The French King shall peacably enjoy for the tearme of eight yeers the Town of Calice with the appertinences, and sixteene great peeces of Ordnance. Which terms being expired, hee shall restore the same with the Towne to Queene Elizabeth. Eight forraine Marchants, not subjects to the French King, shall passe their words for the payment of 500000 Crownes, in the name of a paine for not restoring Calice. Neverthelesse Queene Elizabeths title to the same Town shall continue good. Five hostages shall be delivered till the Marchants binde themselves. If any thing during the time aforesaid shall be attempted or innovated by armes, directly or indirectly by the Queene of England, or her subjects by her authority, commandement or approbation, against the most Christian King, or the Queene of Scots, they shall be freed and absolved from all promise and faith given, and the hostages and Marchants shall be set at liberty. If any thing in like manner shall be attempted or innovated by the most Christian King, the Queene of Scots, or the Doilphin, against the Queene of England, they shall be bound without all delay to give over the possession of Calice.
8. In the same place, the same time, and by the same Commissioners, a peace also was concluded betwixt the Queene of England, and Francis and Mary, King and Queene of Scots, certaine Articles concerning the graunting of safe-conducts to homicides, theeves, rank-riders upon the Marches, and fugitives being referred to English and Scottish commisioners. Which when they were agreed upon at Upsalington betwixt ENGLISH COMMISSIONERS Thomas Earle of Northumberland Cuthbert Tunstall Bishop of Durresme [Durham] Sir James Crofts Captaine of the Towne and Castle of Barwicke, And SCOTTISH COMMISSIONERS The Earle of Morton The Baron of Humes, and Saint Claire Deane of Glascow a peace was proclaimed over all England betwixt the Queene of England, the King of France, the Dolphin, and the Queene of Scots; which was ill taken by the people, as dishonourable to the English for the loss of Calice, and not restoring thereof; while the Protestants layed the blame upon the Bishops and the Papists, and they againe cast it upon the Lord Wentworth the Governour, being one of the Protestants. And he indeed in the Raigne of Queene Mary, being absent and unheard, was in that behalfe called in question, but now the times being changed, was called againe to his tryall, heard, and acquited by his Peeres. But Ralph Chamberlaine, who was Captaine of the Castle of Calice, and John Harlestone, who had charge of the Towre at Risbanck, were afterwards condemned of treason for abandoning their quarter, but their punishment was remitted.
9. When the Assembly of Parliament was now to be dissolved, they all thought good that the third Estate, or Lower House, should advise the Queene to marry betimes; yet would not the Temporall Lords joyne with them, lest any of them might seeme to propound it in hope to preferr himselfe. Thomas Gargave therefore, Speaker of the Lower House, with some few selected men, after leave obtained, came unto the Queene, and making his excuse by his Office, the Queenes courtesie, and the weightinesse of the matter, went forward to this purpose. There is nothing which with more ardent affection we begge of God in our daily prayers, then that our happinesse hitherto received by your most gracious Government may be perpetuated to the English nation unto all eternity. Whilest in our mind and cogitation wee cast many wayes how this may be effected, we can find none at all, unlesse your Majestie should either raigne for ever (which to hope for is not lawfull), or else by marriage bring forth children, heires both of their mothers vertue and Empire (which God Almighty graunt). This is the single, the onely, the all-comprehending prayer of all Englishmen. All other men of what place and degree soever, but especially Princes must have a care, that though themselves be mortall, yet the Common-wealth may continue immortall. This immortality may your Majestie give to the English, if (as your humane nature, age, beauty, and fortune doe require) you will take some man to your husband, who may be a comfort and helpe unto you, and a Consort in prosperity and adversity. For (questionlesse) more availeth the helpe of one onely husband for the effecting of matters, then the joynt industry of many men. Nothing can be more contrary to the publicke respects then that such a Princesse, in whose marriage is comprehended the safety and peace of the Common-wealth, should live unmarried and as it were a vestall virgin. A kingdome received from ancestors is to be left to children, who will be both an ornament and strength to the Realme. The Kings of England have never bin more carefull of any thing then that the Royall family might not faile of issue. Hence it was that within our fresh memory Henry the VII your grandfather provided his sonnes Arthur and Henry of marriage, even in their tender yeeres. Hence it was that your father sought to procure Mary Queene of Scots to bee a wife for his young sonne Prince Edward, then scarce eight yeeres old, and very lately your sister Queene Mary being well in yeeres, Philip of Spaine. If lacke of children use to be inflicted by God as a great punishment as well upon Royall as private families, what and how great a sinne may it be, if the Prince voluntarily plucke it upon himselfe, whereby an infinite heape of miseries must needs overwhelme the Common-wealth with all calamities which the minde even dreadeth to remember? Which that it may not come to passe, not only we few that are here present, but even all England, yea all English men, doe prostrate our selves at your feete, and with humble voyce and frequent sighs doe from the bottome of our hearts most submissively pray and beseech you. These things <he> spake eloquently and more amply.
10. She answered briefly, In a matter most unpleasing, most pleasing to me is the apparent good-will of you and my people, as proceeding from a very good minde towards me and the Common-wealth. Concerning marriage which ye so earnestly move me to, I have beene long since perswaded that I was sent into this world by God to thinke and doe those things chiefly which may tend to his glory. Hereupon have I chosen the kinde of life, which is most free from the troublesome cares of this world, that I might attend the service of God alone. From which if either the tendred marriages of most potent Princes, or the danger of death intended against me, could have removed me, I had long agone enjoyed the honour of an husband. And these things have I thought upon when I was a private person. But now that the publicke care of governing the Kingdome is laid upon me, to drawe upon me also the cares of marriage may seeme a point of inconsiderate folly, yea to satisfie you, I have already joyned my selfe in marriage to an husband, namely, the Kingdome of England. And behold (said she) which I marvaile ye have forgotten, the pledge of this my wedlocke and marriage with my Kingdome (and therewith she drew the Ring from her finger and shewed it, wherewith at her Coronation she had in a set forme of words solemnly given herselfe in marriage to her Kingdome). Here having made a pawse, And doe not (saith she) upbraid me with miserable lacke of children; for every one of you, and as many as are Englishmen, are children, and kinsmen of me. Of whom if God deprive me not (which God forbid), I cannot without injury bee accompted barraine. But I commend you that you have not appointed me an husband, for that were most unworthy the Majesty of an absolute Princesse, and unbeseeming y our wisedome which are subjects borne. Nevertheless if it please God that I enter into another course of life, I promise you I will doe nothing which may be prejudiciall to the Common-wealth, but will take such a husband as neere as may be, as will have as great a care of the Common-wealth as of my selfe. But if I continue in this kind of life I have begun, I doubt not but God will so direct mine owne and your counsails, that ye shall not need to doubt of a successor, which may be more beneficiall to the Common-wealth, then he which may be borne of me, considering that the issue of the best Princes many times degenerateth. And to me it shall be a full satisfaction both for the memoriall of my name, and for my glory also, if when I shall let my last breath, it be ingraven upon my Marble Tombe, HERE LYETH ELIZABETH, WHICH REIGNED A VIRGIN, AND DYED A VIRGIN.
11. In this Assembly of the Estates, besides those matters which I have already related, some things were enacted and established concerning the not offering of violence to the Queenes person; of Tenths and first fruits to be restored to the Crowne; of an uniforme order of publicke prayers to be used in all Churches, to wit, the Liturgy and administration of the Sacraments which was in use under Edward the sixth, some fewe things being changed, and a penalty inflicted upon the depravers thereof, or such as should use any other whatsoever; of going to Church upon Sundays and Holy-dayes, a mulct of twelve pence for every dayes absence being imposed on those that should absent themselves, and the same to be bestowed upon the poore; also concerning seditious rumours against the Queene, marchandise, shipping, clothing, yron workes, and of tumultuous and unlawfull meetings. And to omit the rest, (by a Law unprinted) concerning the possessions of Archbishops and Bishops, That they should not give, graunt, or Lease out the livinge of the Church, but for one and twenty yeeres, or three lives (as they terme it) to others then to the Queene and her successours, reserving the old rents. But that exception for the Queene, proved gainefull to her Courtiours that abused her bounty, and to the Bishops that sought their own profit, but to the Church very hurtfull, untill such times as King James in the beginning of his Raigne tooke it away to the great good of the Church. In this Parliament there not a man proscribed, a thing usuall to be done in the first Parliaments of Kings; there were restored in blood Gregory Fines Lord Dacres, and Thomas his brother, whose father had beene put to death in the Raigne of Henry the eighth; Henry Howard, who was afterwards Earle of Northampton, and his three sisters; the children of Henry Howard Earle of Surrey, who was for light causes beheaded by Henry the eighth a little before hee dyed; John Grey of Pyrgo, brother to the Marquesse <of> Dorset, Sir James à Crofts, Sir Henry Gates, who were convict of high treason in the Raigne of Queene Mary, and some others.
12. The Parliament being dissolved by authority of the same, the Liturgie was forthwith brought into the Churches in the vulgar tongue. Images were removed without tumult, the Oath of Supremacy offred to the Popish Bishops, and others of the Ecclesiasticall profession, which most of them had sworne until in the Raigne of Henry the eighth. As many as refused to sweare, were turned out of their livings, dignities, and Bishoprickes; and those (as themselves have written) in the whole Realme, which reckoned more than 9400 Ecclesiasticall promotions, not above 80 Parsons of Churches, 50 Prebendaryes, 15 Presidents of Colleges, 12 Archdeacons, as many Deanes, 6 Abbots and Abbasses, and 14 Bishops, being all which sate, saving onely Antony Bishop of Lhandaff, the calamity of his See, namely, Nicholas Heath Archbishop of Yorke, who of late had voluntarily given over his Office of Chancellour, and lived securely many yeeres, serving God, and following his studies, in his Mannor of Cobham in Surrey, being in such great grace with the Queene, that she visited him many times with marveilous kindnesse. Edmund Bonner Bishop of London, one that had been employed in Embassies to the Emperour, the Bishop of Rome, and the French King, but with his authority had joyned such a sowrenesse of nature, that amongst all men he underwent the note of cruelty, and was kept in prison a great part of his life. Cuthburt Tunstall Bishop of Durresme [Durham], a man passing well seene in all kinde of more polished literature, having runne thorow many degrees of honour at home, and worthily performed Embassies abroad, who being ayoung man sharpely impugned the Popes Primacy, in a long Epistle to Cardinall Poole. Also being an old man, dyed at Lambeheith [Lambeth] in free custody. Where also Thomas Thurlbey Bishop of Ely let his life, having gotten great commendation of wisedome by an Embassie to Rome, about tendring obedience to the See of Rome, and by the Treaty of Cambray. Gilbert Bourn Bishop of Bath and Wells, who had deserved well of his See. John Christopherson Bishop of Cichester, who being a very learned Grecian, most faithfully translated much of Eusebius and Philo for the use of Christendome. John White Bishop of Winchester, meanely learned and a tolerable Poet, as thosetimes afforded. Thomas Watson Bishop of Lincolne, learned in deepe Divinitie, but surely withan austere gravity. Ralph Bayn Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, who was a second restorer of the Hebrew tongue, and the Kings Professor thereof at Paris, when good letters reflourished under Francis the first. Owen Oglethorp Bishop of Carleol. James Turbervill Bishop of Excester; and David Pole Bishop of Peterborough. Afterwards was displaced Feckenham, Abbot of the Benedictines at Westminster, a learned and good man, who lived a long time, and by publickly deserving well of the poore, drew unto him the love of his adversaries. These man were first sent to prison, but most of them were shortly after committed to the custody of their friends or of Bishops, save two that were more perverse, namely Lincolne and Winchester, who threatned to excommunicate the Queene. But three, namely, Cuthbert Scot of chester, Richard Pate of Worcester, and Thomas Coldwell of Asaph, voluntarily departed the Land, and also certain Nunnes, as did likewise afterwards some Noblemen. Of whom those of better note were Henry Lord Morley. Sir Francis Inglefield. Sir Robert Peckham (both of them of Queene Maries Privy Councell). Sir Thomas Shelley, and Sir John Gage.
13. In the roomes of the dead and fugitive Bishops were substituted the learnedest Protestants that could be found. Matthew Parker a religious and learned man, and of most modest manners, who being Chaplaine to King Henry the eighth, had beene Dean of the Collegiate Church of Stoke-Clare, was solemnly elected to the Archbishopricke of Canterbury, and consecrated at Lambehieth, after a Sermon, and invocation of the holy Ghost, and celebration of the Eucharist, by the laying of the hands of three quondam Bishops,William Barlow of Bath, John Scory of Chichester, Miles Coverdale of Excester,and John Suffragane of Bedford. He afterwards consecrated Edmund Grindall an excellent Divine, Bishop of London. Richard Cox, who had been Schoolemaster to Edward the sixth, Bishop of Ely. Edwin Sands, a ready and eloquent Preacher, Bishop of Worcester. Rowland Merick, Bishop of Bangor. Thomas Young, a learned Professor of Both Lawes, Bishop of Saint Davids. Nicholas Bullingham Doctor also of the Lawes, Bishop of Lincolne. John Jewell, a man very well seene in all liberal learning, Bishop of Salisbury. Richard Davis Bishop of Saint Asaphs. Edward Guest Bishop of Rochester. Gilbert Barkley Bishop of Bath. Thomas Bentham Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. William Alley an eloquent expounder of the holy Scriptures, Bishop of Excester. John Parkhurst, a man very well skilled in humane learning, Bishop of Norwich. Robert Horne, a man of flowing and ready wit, Bishop of Winchester. Richard Cheiney, one most addicted to Luther, Bishop of Glocester, and Edmund Scambler, Bishop of Peterborough. William Barlow also, who in the Raigne of Henry the eighth, and been Bishop of Saint Davids, and after of Wells, he confirmed Bishop of Chichester, and John Story, a man of learned judgement, who had before been Bishop of Chichester, he confirmed Bishop of Hereford. In like manner in the Province of Yorke, Young being removed from the Bishopricke of Saint Davids to the See of Yorke, consecrated James Pilkington, a man of singular learning and honesty, Bishop of Durresme. John Best, Bishop of Carliel, and William Downham Bishop of Chester. What manner of men these were, and what they suffered being exiles in Germany in the Raigne of Queene Mary, or else hiding themselves in England, I leave to the Ecclesiasticall Historian to relate.
14. But whereas learned men were more rare to be found, many mechanicall men out of the shop, and no lesse unlearned then the Popish Priests, attained to Ecclesiasticall dignities, Prebends, and rich benefices. Neverthelesse most of the Popish Priests throught it more behoovefull for themselves and their Religion to sweare obedience to their Prince, renouncing the Popes authority, were Ôit for nothing else but that they might shut the Protestantes out of the Churches, and withall be able to relieve the wants of those of their own side which were thrust out. And this they thought to be pious wisedome, and in a manner meritorous; and therefore they hoped that the Bishop of Rome would, according to this authority, dispense with their Oath.
15. Thus was Religion in England changed, whilest all Christendome admired that it was wrought so easily and without commotion. But indeed it was no sudden change (which is never lightly endured), but slow, and by degrees. For (to repeate summarily what I have said already) the Romish Religion stood a full moneth and more after death of Queene Mary, in the same state as it was before. The 27th of December it was permitted that the Epistles, Gospels, tenne Commandments, the Lords Prayer, the Creede, and the Litany should be used in the vulgar tongue. The 11th of March, when the Estates of the Realme were assembled, by the renewing of a Law of Edward the sixth, was graunted the whose use of the Lords Supper, to wit, under both kinds. The 24th of June, by authority of an Act Concerning the uniformity of publicke prayer, and administration of the Sacraments, the sacrifice of the Masse was abolished, and the Liturgie in the English tongue established; in the moneth of July the Oath of Supremacy was ministred to the Bishops and to others; and in August Images were removed out of the Churches, broken or burnt. But whereas certain calumnious spirits defamed the Queene, as if she arrogated to her selfe the Title of Supreme head of the Church of England, and authority to celebrate Gods Service in the Church, she by a publicke writing declared, that She arrogated nothing else, but what long since belonged to the Crowne of England in right, to wit, that she had next under God the highest and supreme government over all Estates of the Realme of England, Ecclesiasticall or Temporall; and that no forraine power had, or ought to have, Jurisdiction over them.
16. By meanes of this alteration of Religion, England (as the Politicians have observed) became of all the Kingdomes of Christendome the most free, the Scepter as it were delivered from the forraine servitude of the Bishop of Rome, and more wealthy then in former ages, an infinite masse of money being stayed at home which was wont to be exported daily to Rome, being incredibly exhausted from the Common-wealth, for first fruits, Pardons, Appeales, Dispensations, Palls, and other such like.
17. The Protestants Religion being now by authority of Parliament established, Queene Elizabeths first and chiefest care was for the most constant defence thereof, against all the practises of all men amidst the enemies in that behalfe, neither indeed did she ever suffer the least innovation therein. Her second care was to hold an even course in her whole life, and all her actions; whereupon she tooke for her Motto, SEMPER EADEM, that is, ALWAYS THE SAME. The rest of ther counsels consisted in these points. That she might carefully provide for the safety of her people; for (as she often had in her mouth) that the Common-wealth might ever be in safety, she was never without care. And that she might purchase her selfe love amongst her subjects, amongst her enemies feare, and glory amongst all men. For those things she knew to be firme and durable, which wisedome beginneth, and care conserveth. How by these manly cares and counsels she surpassed her sexe, and what she effected by most wisely preventing, diverting, and most stowtly resisting, let present and future ages judge by those things which with uncorrupt faithfulnesse shall be delivered out of the very Commentaries of the Kingdome, as I may so terme them.
18. At this time, whereas the Emperour and the Catholicke Princes by many Letters made intercession that the displaced Bishops might be mercifully dealt withall, and that Churches might bee allowed to the Papists by themselves in Cities, shee answered, Although these Popish Bishops have insolently and openly repugned against the Lawes and quiet of the Realme, and doe now obstinately reject that Doctrine which most part of themselves, under Henry the eighth, and Edward the sixth, had of their owne accord, with heart and hand, publickely in their Sermons and writings taught unto others, when they themselves were not private men but public Magistrates; yet would she for so great Princes sakes deal favourably with them, though not without offence to her owne subjects. But graunt them Churches to celebrate their Divine Offices apart by themselves, she cannot with the safety of the Common-wealth, and without wrong to her owne honour and conscience. Neither is there any cause why she should graunt them, seeing England embraceth no new or strange Doctrine, but the same which Christ hath commanded, the primitive and Catholike Church hath received, and the antient Fathers have with one voyce and minde approved. And to allow Churches with contrary Rites and Ceremonies, besides that it openly repugneth against the Lawes established by the authority of Parliament, were nothing else but to sow Religion out of Religion, to distract good mens minds, to cherish factious mens humours, disturbe Religion and Common-wealth, and mingle Divine and humane things; which were a thing indeed evill, in example worst of all, to her owne good subjects hurtfull, and to themselves to whom it is graunted neither greatly commodious, nor yet at all safe. She was therefore determined, out of her naturall clemency, and especially at their request, to be willing to heale the private insolency of a few by much connivence; yet so as shee might not incourage their obstinate minds by her indulgence.
19. The Spaniard having now cast off all hope of marriage with Queen Elizabeth, and being now ready to match with the French Kings daughter, seriously thought notwithstanding of England, which hee would by no meanes should be joyned to the Scepter of France. To retaine therefore the dignity of so great a Kingdome in his owne family, he perswaded the Emperour Ferdinand, his uncle, to commend one of his sonnes to Queene Elizabeth for an husband, which he forthwith did by Letters full-fraught with love, and dealt earnestly to that purpose by Gaspar Preinor, free Baron in Stibing. And the Spaniard himselfe, the better to effect it, most frankly promised to Queene Elizabeth his speciall and singular love; and she in like manner as largely offereth unto him being now ready to passe into Spain by Sea, both her ships and havens, and all offices of kindnesse, by Sir Thomas Chaloner.
20. The French King on the other side, in favour of his sonne the Dolphin, and of Mary Queene of Scots (casting his eyes into England), drew not his French Forces out of Scotland, as by Covenant hee had promised to doe, but sent more underhand, and more earnestly then before dealt with the Bishop of Rome that hee would pronounce Queene Elizabeth an heretike and illegitimate, and Mary of Scotland to bee lawfull Queene of England. Which notwithstanding the Spaniard and the Emperour by their Agents at Rome most carefully, but closely, laboured to crosse. Neverthelesse the Guises had put the French King, being ambitiously credulous, into such a sweete hope of joyning England to the Scepter of France by the Queene of Scots their niece, that he openly claimed England for his sonne and his daughter in lawe, and commanded, when he could not prevaile at Rome, that in all publicke instruments they should use the Title Francis and Mary by the grace of God King and Queene of Scotland, England, and Ireland, and every where set forth the Armes of the Kingdom of England quartered with the Armes of Scotland in their household stuffe, and painted upon the walls, and wrought into the Heralds Coates of Armes; while the English Ambassadour in vaine complained that this was done in exceeding great wrong to Queene Elizabeth, with whom he had very lately contracted amity, forasmuch as he had not done it while Queene Mary of England lived, who had denounced warre against him. He leavyed also men both Horse and Foot in France and Germany to be transported into the parts of Scotland bordering upon England, so that Queene Elizabeth could not but misdoubt the French King, who now breathed nothing but blood and slaughter against the Protestants. But his attempts were cut off by suddaine death which he caught by running at Tilt at the nuptiall solemnities of his daughter with the Spaniard, and his sister with the Savoyard. And certainely in very good time for Queene Elizabeths good, whom both as an heretike, and also illegitimate hee was minded to assaile with all the power he could, on the one side out of Scotland, and on the other side out of France. Yet she (to doe him honour being dead) solemnized his Funerall as for a King her friend, with great pompe in Pauls Chuch at London. And withall by him which is now Lord Admirall of England and Ireland, Charles the son of the Lord Howard of Effingham, she condoled with his sonne for his fathers death, and congratulating for his succession, put him in minde to observe the amity lately entered into.
21. But Francis, and the Queene of Scots his wife (by the counsell of the Guises, who now in a manner bare all the sway in France) beare themselves openly for King and Queene of England and Ireland, and abstaine not from the Armes of England which they had usurped, but more and more shewe them abroad every where. And to Sir Nicholas Throckmorton Ambassadour Legier there, a stout and wise man, when he sharply expostulated these matters, first it was answered that it was lawfull for the Queene of Scots to beare them, with some small note of difference, to shew the neerenesse of her kindred to the blood Royall of England. Throckmorton flatly denyed out of the Lawe of Armes (as they call it) that it was lawfull for any to usurpe the Armes of any family, which is not bourne of a certaine and knowne heire of the same house; afterwards they said, that shee arrogated those Armes to no other purpose, but that the Queene of England should abstaine from the Armes of France. For this he put them in minde of that which D. Wotton has before alledged in the Treaty of Cambray, that twelve Kings of England had borne the Armes of France, and that with so undoubted right, that in all the Confederacies betweene the English and the French nothing had beene provided to the contrary. At length he prevaileth that through the mediation of Montmorency, an emulator of the Guises, so that they abstained quite from the Title and Armes of England and Ireland. For hee thought it to be no honour to the Kingdome of France that any other Title or Armes should be assumed or engraven in the Kings Seale then those of the King of France; that this one Title was as good as many; and that he shewed that the former Kings had used no other Title when they prosecuted their right to Naples and Millaine, etc. But in very deede from the Title and Armes which through the perswasion of the Guises, Henry King of France had imposed upon the Queene of Scots, being now in her tender age, flowed as from a fountaine all the calamities wherein she was afterwards wrapped. For hereupon Queene Elizabeth bare both enmity to the Guises and secret grudge against her, which the subtill malice of men on both sides cherished, growing betwixt them, emulation, and new occasions daily arising, in such sort that it could not be extinguished but by death. For a Kingdome brooketh no companion, and Majestie more heavily taketh injuries to heart.
22. Some reasonable time after, there were sent over no more but three hostages for Calice, whereas by the Treaty there should have beene foure, the English Marchants are injuriously handled in France, a servant of Throckmorton the Ambassadour is forcibly taken in the open streets by Francis, Grand Prior of France, the Duke of Guise his brother, and thrust into the Gallies, Pistols are discharged at the Ambassadour himself within his owne walls, and in despight, he is served with no other vessels to his Table then such wherein the Armes of the Kingdome of England are quartered with those of France. Monsieur de Brossy also is sent into Scotland with a choice power of men, and from Marseilles and the Mediterranean Sea are Gallies sent for into the British Sea.
23. Now the professors of the Protestants Religion in Scotland, who had taken upon them the name of The Congregation (being perswaded by some importune Ministers, and especially by Knox, a most fervent impugner of the Queenes authority, that it was the duty of the Nobility and Estates by their own authority to abolish idolatry, and by force to reduce Princes within the prescript of the Lawes), had refused to yeeld obedience to the Regent the Queenes mother, a most modest Matron, changed Religion, tumultuously firing and sacking Religious places, and had drawne to their party Hamilton Duke of Chastel-herault (the powerfullest man in the whole Kingdome, one that had beene incensed by injuries of the French) and many of the chiefe Nobility, allured with hope of the revenues of the Church. Insomuch as they seemed to the Lady Regent and the French Soldiers that served in Scotland, not to ayme at Religion, but to attempt a flat Revolt; and James Prior of Saint Andrewes, the Queenes base brother (who was afterwards Earle of Murray) the Ring-leader amongst them, was by them accused for affecting the Crowne against his sister. He laboureth to remove a suspicion, most religiously protesting that he sought nothing else but Gods glory, and the liberty of his Country, and could not but sorrowfully bewaile the oppressing thereof by the Lady Regent and the French.
24. The Masters of the Congregation began now to complaine to Queene Elizabeth by William Maitland of Lidington Lord Secretary, in a lamentable Oration; to wit, that from the time the Queene of Scots was marryed to the Dolphin, the government of the Kingdome was changed, forraine Souldiers wasted all places, the highest Offices of the Kingdome were bestowed upon Frenchmen, the Castles and strong holds delivered into their hands, and the purer money of the Realme embased for their gaine, and that by these and such like cunning practices, the French did craftily make themselves way to seize upon the Kingdome of Scotland, if any thing should befall the Queene other then well. Cecyl (whom for his singular wisedome Queene Elizabeth employed as her chiefest Minister in these and other matters) dealt by Henry Percy, Earle afterwards of Northumberland, that he might understand what was the scope [objective] which those Masters of the Congregation propounded to themselves, by what meanes they were able to compasse that they sought, and (if at any time they were ayded) upon what conditions amity might growe betweene the two Kingdomes. They answer, with eyes lifted up to heaven, that they have no other ayme but to advaunce the glory of Jesus Christ and the sincere preaching of Gods Word, to roote out superstitions and idolatry, to restraine the fury of their persecutours, and preserve their ancient liberty. By what meanes they may be able to effect this, flatly they know not; but what God had begunne, they hope he will bring to an happy end, with the confusion of his adversaries. And that a mutuall amity betwixt the two Kingdomes is the summe of their prayers, and for confirmation thereof they vow their wealth, their fidelity, their constancy.
25. These things are slowly deliberated of in England, because the Scots were unprovided of Armes and money, and amongst themselves of unstable constancy; onely they are advised not rashly to trye the chance of warre. But as soone as it was once knowne that the Marquess of Albeuf the Queene of Scots uncle leavyed forces by meanes of the Rheingrave in Germany for the Scottish warre, that Peeces of great Ordnance were conveyed to the Ports, that greater provisions were made then to suppresse a few unarmed Scots (for this was pretended), and that the Frenchmen also promised the Danish King (to the end to draw him to their party) that the Duke of Loraine should resigne his claime to the Kingdome of Denmarke; and that they againe more importunately urged the Bishop of Rome censure against the Queene,, and his Sentence declaratory for the Queene of Scots Title to England, Sir Ralph Sadleir a wise man, was sent to the borders of Scotland to be assistant by his counsell to the Earle of Northumberland Warden of the middle March, and to Sir James à Crofts Governour of Barwick. For to what end these things tended the Councell could not see, unlesse to invade England, and to prosecute by warre, which by Titles and Armes they made shew of.
26. Seriously therefore they consult hereof in England. That a Prince should yeeld protection to the rebellious subjects of another Prince seemed a matter of very bad example, but to fayle the Professours of the same Religion, a point of impiety. Againe, it were a part of preposterous wisedome to suffer the French, sworn enemies to the English Nation, who layed claime to the Kingdome of England, and enjoyed now a settled peace on all sides, to remaine armed in Scotland, a Country so neere neigbouring, and so commodious to invade England, in that quarter where the English nobles and the common people were most addicted to the Romish Religion. For this were nothing else but to betray negligently to the enemies the safety of every particular, and the tranquillity of all in general. They must not therefore rest in dull counsels, but addresse themselves to Armes. It hath ever beene a point of English providence to prevent, not to attend the enemy, and it hath beene always lawfull as well to prevent as to repell dangers, and with the same policies to defend, by which the enemies doe offend. England is never securely safe, but when it is armed and powerfull; and the more powerfull it will be, when it feareth nothing from Scotland. And that it may not feare, the Professors of the same Religion are to be relieved, and the French driven out of Scotland, against whom not counsels but Armes may prevaile. Which having not long since beene grossely neglected, Calice was lost not without great damage and dishonour; and a little before, while the French egregiously dissembled a desire of peace, Ambleteul and the Forts about Bologne were surprized at unawares, and taken, whereby Bologne of necessity was rendered. Neither is there any other to be expected of Barwick and the frontier Towns, unlesse Armes be taken out of hand, and no credit given to the French in Scotland, who now pretend a desire of peace, considering that the Frenchmens designes are close, their ambitions infinite, and their revenewes numberlesse, insomuch as it is long since growne to a Proverbe amongst the English That France can neither be poore, nor abstaine from warre three yeeres together. Queene Elizabeth also many times used that saying of Valentinian the Emperour, Have the French thy friend, but not thy neighbour. It was therefore thus resolved that it was just, honest, necessary, and profitable to drive the French forthwith out of Scotland.
27. Hereupon was William Winter, Master of the munition for the Navy, sent with a Fleete into Bodotria (now called Edinborough firth), who, to the great terrour of the French, set upon their ships of warre that lay upon the coast, and upon the French Garrison in the Ilse of Inchkeith. Soone after the Duke of Norfolke was made Lieutenant Generall in the North part towards Scotland; William Lord Grey, a most martiall man (who had of late stoutly, but unfortunately, defended Gwines against the French), was made Warden of the Middle and East Marches. And Thomas Earle of Sussex, who had beene in the Raigne of Queene Mary Lord Deputy of Ireland, was sent back againe into Ireland, with instructions that he should above all things beware lest the Irish, being an uncivill people, and therefore the more superstitious, should by the cunning practices of the French be excited to Rebellion under pretext of Religion; that hee should fortifie Ophale with Castles and Forts; that he should graunt large livings and possessions to those that had served long in the warres, to hold to them and the heires male of their body; that he should admit Surley-Boys, a Wilde Irish man into those possessions which he claimed by inheritance in Ulster, to hold in fee to performe services; that he should augment the Queenes revenewes moderately, and reduce her Exchequer to the forme of the Exchequer in England.
28. In the meane time Francis Talbot, who was one of the chiefest Councellours of the Realme, departed this life, being the first Earle of Shrewbury of that family, leaving for his successour his onely sonne George, by Mary daughter to Thomas Lord Dacres of Gillsland.