- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1596
IN the beginning of January, when the truce was now expired (although by the subtill practices of the rebels the Castle of Monaghan had beene seyzed on in the meane time), Sir Henry Wolley Treasurer of the Army in Ireland, and Sir Robert Gardiner Chiefe Justice, most grave men and of approved wisedome, were sent to conferre with Tir-Oen, O-Donel, and the rest of the rebels, and to perswade them to peace. To these men they exhibited their severall grievances and petitions, the one after the other.
2. Tir-Oen complained that Sir Henry Bagnall, Marshall, had cunningly prevented him of the fruit of his labours, that by lyes and subtill practises he had cast him out of the Queenes favour, and in a manner from his degree of honour; that he had intercepted his letters to the Lord Deputy Generall Norrys and others, and suppressed them to his very great prejudice; and detained the Dowry assigned ot his wife, protesting that he had never dealt with foreigne Princes before such time as hee was proclaymed traytor. Hee most humbly besought that he and his might have their crimes pardoned; that they might be restored to their former estates; that they might have free exercise of their Religion (and yet there had scarce ever bin any inquiry into Religion in Ireland, neither had any thought of Religion once entred into the conspirators minds, and this was the first time that they pretended the same to strengthen their party); that the Marshall might pay him 1000 pounds English for his wives dowry, shee being now dead; that no Garison souldiers, Sheriefs, or such kind of Officers might be appointed in the Country of Tir-Oen; that a troupe of 50 horsemen, whereof he had had command at the Queenes pay, might be restored unto him; and that those which had mady prey of his might be subjected to punishment. If these things might be granted, he promised that he would omit no duty of a faithfull Subject, and would suffer the Archbishop and Deane of Armach to use and enjoy their priviledges and possessions.
3. O-Donel, after hee had made mention of the fidelity of his Father and his Ancestors towards the Kings of England, complained that Bome an English Captaine was sent with a band of men by the Lord Deputy Perrot into his Countrey, under colour of drawing the people to civility, and was courteously entertayned by his father, some Townes being assigned unto him; yet did he leave no kinde of injury unpractised against his father; advaunced a bastard to the dignity of O-Donel; that the Lord Deputy Perot had by a wile intercepted him himselfe, thrust him an innocent into prison, and unjustly detained him untill by Gods helpe hee escaped; that the Lord Deputy Fitz-Williams had sent for Oen O-Toole, the second man in that tract next to O-Donel himselfe, upon publique warrantise of letters of protection, and kept him, being innocent, seven yeeres in straight custody, and had burdened his neighbours in Fermanaugh with intollerable injuries; that he himselfe could enter into no other course for his safety then by helping his vexed neighbours. He required the same things which the Earle did, and also certaine Castles and livings in the County of Slego and the Castle of Slego, which both he claymed to be confirmed unto him in his owne right (for that Castle Ulick a Burgh, Ensigne-bearere of the garison, had lately betrayed to the enemies, having treacherously slaine Goerge Bingham his Captaine). Shan Mac-Brian and Mac-Phelin O-Neal lamently cryed out that the Ile of Magy and the Barony of Maughery-Mourn, their Ancestors inheritance, were injuriously taken from them; the first by the Earle of Essex, the other by Sir Henry Bagnall; that he himselfe was kept in bands until by constraint he resighed his title to Bagnall; and that he was now vexed with unworthy injuries by the the Garison souldiers in Knoc-Fergus. Hugh Mac-Guire exaggerated the military insolency of the Garison souldiers in driving away his Cowes, and that the Shereife, being sent into his Territories, had cut off the head of his nearest kinsman and spurned it with his feet. Brian Mac-Huge, Oge Mac-Mahon, and Ever Mac-Conly complained, besides other things, that the Lord Deputy Fitz-Williams, drawne away with gifts, had confirmed Hugh Roe in the dignity of Mac-Mahon, and shortly after, for that he had after the custome of the Countrey with banners displayed exacted a mulct imposed, hanged him and granted his inheritance to strangers that the name of Mac-Mahon might be blotted out. In a word, they all made the same demands which I have above mentioned concerning the exercise of Religion. But these two last demanded further that they might freely enjoy all the livings, as well Ecclesiasticall as their owne, within their Countries for a yeerely rent in money. When the Commissioners thought meet that of these things some should be granted, some moderated, and some referred to the Queene, they also propounded in like manner these articles to the rebels: That they should lay downe armes, dismisse their Forces, beg pardon for their crime of rebellion, admit Sheriefes in their Territories, repaire the Forts they had razed, not molest the Garison souldiers, restore what they had taken away, dicover upon oath what things soever they had treated with forraigne Princes, and passe their faithfull promise to have never to doe, from thence forth, with forreigners against the Queene. They, being now growne insolent, thought these demands so unreasonable that they departed one from the other, having concluded a truce till the first of Aprill, upon these conditions: That no hostility should be committed on either side; that the English Garison souldiers should freely goe whither they would with their victualls and armes, forrage, fetch in wood, and bring materials within three miles to fortifie their Garison places wheresoever they should lye; that they should by no meanes allure the faithfull subjects to rebellion, and other such like; that for the confirmation of these things hostages should be be delivered on Tir-Oens part, which either should continue, or others should bee substituted in ther roome at set times. O-Donel could by no meanes be perswaded to give hostages. When they were ready to depart, Tir-Oen and O’Donel signified by letters that they could performe nothing unlesse Feagh Mac-Hugh in Leinster, Mac-Williams, O-Rorc, O-Conor Dun, and the rest of the rebels in Connacht, the O-Rayles, and those in Brenny might be pardoned and restored to their ancient possessions.
4. The Queene, though at that time and afterward shee would for sparing the effusion of blood, have willingly condescended to any conditions of peace not unworthy her Majesty, yet could shee not endure to heare that rebels should make intercession to her for rebels, who knew her selfe (as she said) how to dispense her mercy to such as repented and sued for it. Concerning the free exercise of the Romish Religion (whereof in their written submission they had no mention), and alienating the patrimony of the Church, she answered that she never wittingly and willingly had granted nor would grant license to any man to breake the Lawes, or seyze upon the livings of the Church. As for the injuries done unto them, shee would make them amends, if they might be made certainely to appeare. But the insolent injustice of her officers and rapines of the Garison souldiers shee utterly condemned. And to this purpose she wrote to Norris and Fenton, whose easie credulity Tir-Oen too much abused. But shee found a lacke of wisedome in Wallop and Gardiner her Commissioners, and somewhat sharply blamed them for that in all their conferences and letters they had honourably saluted and spoken to Tir-Oen, a Rebell publiquely proclaimed, and the rest.
5. For hee in the meane time by submisse letters seriously and secretly sollicited the Spaniard by privy Messengers for sending of ayde, insomuch as one or two Messengers came secretly with letters to the Rebels, with whom a compact was made that if the Spaniard would within a prefixed time send a strong Army, sufficient to vanquish the English, they would joyne their Forces with them; and in the meane time if hee would supply them with Armes and muntion, they would reject all conditions of peace whatseover. To these covenants O-Rork, Mac-Williams, and others subscribed, but not Tir-Oen, being subtill and cautious; yet is there no doubt but hee consented. The letters which the Spaniard had written to him, fraught with large promises, he in cunning dissimulation of duty sent over to the Lord Deputy; and withall, relying upon assured hope of the Spaynish ayde, hee started backe from his written submission and his faithfull promise to Norris. Which thing Norris (having beene deceived by his owne credulity) sharply and angrely expostulated with him, as if hee had deceived him with faire shewes. But hee, knowing well how to temporize, the trust being now almost expired, descended to a new parley with Norris and Secretary Fenton, and a kinde of peace, or rather contract such as it was, was entred into, and hostages given. But their meanes a pardon was drawne for Tir-Oen and his in the Country of Tir-Oen; which when it was for a while delayed, for that the Lawyers in Ireland could not agree upon the forme, hee also protracted the matter the space of two months, being doubtfull whether hee should accept it unlesse the Rebels in Connacht might withall be comprehended therein. Yet did hee accept it, pretending singular joy, and saying many times that it was farre more welcome to him then the Letters Patents whereby the honour of an Earle was conferred on him; but yet hee refused to bind his fidelity by oath, and to forsweare forraigne aydes.
6. Whilest Generall Norris made this contract with Tir-Oen, the Lord Deputy went against O-Maden (who had kindled a new fire of rebellion), and beseiged his Castle of Clohon O-Maden. The Garison ,being summoned to yeeld, answered with barbarous malepertnesse that if all which were there were Lord Deputies, they would not yeeld up the Fort. But within a few daies the Castle was taken by force, and they were put every man to the sword. Norris and Fenton going into Connacht could hardly draw the Rebels to any conditions of peace, who, boiling with anger against Bingham, did nothing for a while but make delaies, and in the end made a disloyall peace by the counsaile (as it is likely) of Tir-Oen. For hee began to give forth doubtfull speeches that hee could not but suspect that hee was deceitfully dealt withall, for that the Lord Deputy and Generall Norris agreed so ill together, for that those which sollicited the Lord Deputy in his behalfe for peace were neglected by him, and for that the Lord Deputy breathed nothing but warre, increasing his troupes of horse out of England, detaining the King of Spaines letters before mentioned, and the Marshall his most bitter adversary being then newly returned out of England with new instructions. Hereupon hee sent abroad his Pillagers and began to waste the neighbouring Countries. And soone after, being troubled with conscience of his crimes, and hearing that a peace was like to be concluded betwixt England and Spaine, hee feigned that hee desired peace with all his heart. I am weary of running over the particular clokes of his dissimulation. In a word, when any danger threatned him from the English, hee then both in countenance and words bare such a feigned shew of submission, and pretending such penitency for his faults, that he deluded them till the opportunity of prosecuting him was lost, and the Forces were of necessity to be distracted. And that hee was alwaies beleeved, and a pardon so often offered unto him was easily effected through the gainfull idlenesse of the Captaines in Ireland, the parsimony of the Councellors in England, and the Queenes innated lenity, who wished that the robberies of the Rebels (for a warre it was not to be called) might be extinguished without bloud. But how full of treachery both his heart and handes were may appeare even by this that followeth.
7. The same month that hee received the writing of the pardon, hee, O-Donell, O-Rork, Mac-Williams, and Tribus Clan Shees sent letters privily to the Gentlemen in Munster, wherein they religiously promised them all hope and assistance, vowing and swearing to all that did defend the Roman-Catholike Religion, and joyned their forces with them, that they would enter into no peace with the English, wherein all the confederates should not be comprehended. Shortly after hee excited Feagh Mac-Hugh (when hee humbly craved also his pardon in writing, and was ready to receive it) to raise a new rebellion in Leinster, which lay asleepe; who presently at unawares seized upon the Fort neere Ballencore, and razed it to the ground; and by stealth over-ran all Leinster with his depredations, though the Lord Deputy pursued him. Hee encouraged also Peter and James Butler the Earle of Ormonds Nephewes, who were then in rebellion. But all this hee did closely and covertly.
8. Winter comming on, his dishonesty, hitherto covered with dissimulation, brake forth openly. Fo,r contrary to the conditions of the agreement, hee publiquely prohibited victuals to be carried to the Garison in Armach; and some as they were carrying, others as they were fetching wood, hee slew by an Ambuscado. And hee himselfe assaulted the Garrison so furiously that 30 of them were slaine. Henry Oge Man-Shan his sonne in law hee sent forth to fire the Villages and gather booty at the river Boyn, and by stratagem attempted the Castle of Carlingford.
9. These things when the Lord Deputy and the Councell expostulated with him, and warned him, if he desired the safety of his hostages, and not to be proclaymed traytor againe, that hee should no more infest the Garison souldiers, nor impeach the carrying of provision unto them, he answered that for his part hee had stood to his covenants, but Feagh Mac-Hugh was troubled by the Lord Deputy, if not contrary to covenants, yet contrary to promise; and Oen Mac-Collo was unworthily slaine by the Garison at Kellas; for this cause hee doubted what become of him and his. He prayed therefore that for an entire compounding of matters, a new conference might be had with Generall Norris or the Lord Deputy. Whereof while consultation was holden, he suffered Armach to be releeved. Yet did O-Donnell in the meane time rob and spoyle in hostile manner all over Connacht, till by procrastinating and shifting he quite deluded the conference, with the vaine hope whereof he fed Norris.
10. Meanwhile the Lord Deputy with undefatigable paynes prosecuteth Mac-Hugh; and at the length, having put the rebels to flight on all sides, and slaine very many of them, Sergeant Milburne tooke him flying to his lurking hole, out of breath, and stabbed and wounded him with many hurts, and cut off his head, which was sent to Dublin to the great rejoycing of the people, a little before the Lord Deputy gave over his office. About which time also James Butlers head was sent to the Lord Deputy by Thomas Lea, and Peter his brother was taken by his Uncle the Earle of Ormond, and hanged, though hee were the next heire of that house.
11. In the middest of these tumults of Ireland, Albert Archduke of Austria and Cardinall, whom the Spaniard had made Governour of the Netherlands, suddenly withdrew the Queenes minde from Irish matters. For as soone as he had taken upon him the government, hee gathered together the Spaniards Forces as if he purposed to rayse the siege at La Fere a Towne of Picardy, and beyond the opinion of all men, turned aside to Calis [Calais], and besieged it, and having the first day taken the Castle of Newenham, became Master of the haven. As soone as the Queene heard by the fearefull messengers of the French King that Calis was besieged, she commanded a power of men to be gathered that very day being Sunday, while men were at Divine service, to ayd the French King, and withall, provide for the safety of England. For she could not but suspect that England might be burned with the fire in her neighbours Countrey. This army hastily raysed she committed to Essex. But before they were shipped, shee had certaine advertisement that both the Towne and Castle were yeelded up unto the Spaniards hands; for when with continuall thundring of the Ordance (the report whereof was heard as farre as Greenwich), the Archduke Albert had shaken the walles, the Townesmen withdrew themselves into the Castle, which within a few dayes also was easily taken, with great slaughter of the French. Hereupon was the English army presently discharged, and some money lent unto the French King, the Duke of Bullion and Sancy passing their worde for the same.
12. Not many dayes passed, but a farre greater and more choyce army was leavyed in England, whereunto many of more noble families voluntarily gave their names. For a constant rumour grew daily stronger and stronger that the Spaniard with all might and maine prepared warre against England and Ireland; and the rather, for that hee was now in possession of Calis (from whence is the shortest cut over into England), Hawkins and Drakes voyage had had ill successe, and the Irish rebels earnestly hastened their succours out of Spaine. The Queene to divert this storme that was thickening, supposing it the best course to set upon the Enemy in his owne Ports, rigged a Fleet of 150 shippes, whereof there were 17 of her Royall shippes, and 2 Low-Country ships, which the Estates confederate had joyned with hers, the rest were Pinnaces and Victuallers. In these were souldiers under pay 6360, voluntary Gentlemen 1000, Saylers 6772, besides the Low-Countrey men. Robert Earle of Essex, and Charles Howard Lord Admirall of England, who were at great charges toward this Voiage out of their own means, were made chiefe Commanders with equall authority, under the title of Generalls, yet so as the Lord Admirall should have the prerogative of authority and dignity at Sea, the Earle of Essex on the Land. To these were adjoyned for a Councell of warre the Lord Thomas Howard, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Francis Vere, Sir George Carew, and Sir Coniers Clifford. The whole Fleet was divided into foure squadrons: the first the Lord Admirall led, the Earle of Essex the second, the Lord Thomas Howard the third, and Sir Walter Raleigh the fourth. The Officers of the Army were Sir Francis Vere Sergeant Major Generall or Marshall, Sir John Wingfield quarter Master Generall, Sir George Carew Master of the Ordnance, Sir Coniers Clifford Sergeant Major. The Colonels were Robert Earle of Sussex, Sir Christopher Blunt, Sir Thomas Gerard, Sir Richard Wingfield, Sir Edward Wingfield Captaine of the Voluntiers, and Anthony Astley Secretary of the Councell of Warre, who was to record their Counsayles with their Reasons, and their Acts.
13. The Queene gave instructions to the Generals to inquire diligently what and how great warlike provision there was in ships or storehouses of victuals, to be sent against England and Ireland, or to Calis, and to intercept the same, or destroy it together with the shippes; yet so, as they neither rashly hazarded her men nor shippes (for she had rather, as now and then shee said, that her men should be reserved for the defence of their Countrey, then so to undergoe the doubfull chance of warre, that they should bring backe neither profit nor glory). That if they tooke any Townes, they should spare the female sex and feeble age, and offer violence to none but such as resisted. That the spoyles should be reserved to recompence the charges, and reward well-deservers; that the Councellors should freely deliver their good advises, and not divide themselves into parties; and that they should doe or leave matters undone according to most voyces. That when they had destroyed as much as they could of the enemies shipping and provision, they should send some shippes of warre to intercept the Indian Caraques, if they had any intelligence of their comming. These things being prescribed them, she appointed a forme of Prayer whereby they should in every shippe daily crave Gods assistance to their enterprises.
14. Against this Expedition some alleadged that neither so many men, nor so many shippes and Saylors, were to be exposed to the chance of warre, lest hapy in their absence the Spaniards, who are ready to take all opportunities, being now incouraged with the unfortunate successe of Drake and Hawkins, should either come in the meane time, or discomfit the English Fleet, and put England in danger.
15. Yet did the Fleet set sayle from Plimmouth in the beginning of June, and was driven backe the first day with a contrary winde; but the next day after setting sayle againe with a most prosperous winde, it was carried farre into the West, and passing along the coasts of Portugall not once descried; and that purposely; for had it beene descryed, and had they attempted any thing in the hither coast of Spaine, or in Portugall, the alarme had presently beene given, and they had beene prevented of their opportunity of working any great exploit. For their designe was (and that with the privity of very few) upon Gades, so much renowned by the Poets for the Sunnes lodging, and by the ancient Geographers holden for the uttermost bound of the earth, at this day a most famous Mart Towne, which might easily have beene defended, and was commodious to annoy the enemy. And this was the place designed for their retreit in those Commissions or instructions which were delivered under seale to the Captaines in every shippe, not to be opened before they had passed the Sacred Promontory, or Cape Saint Vincent (unlesse they were seperated from the rest of the Fleet by force of a tempest), and to be cast into the Sea if they were in any danger of the enemy. Over against the Sacred Promontory they light upon an Irish shippe, whose Master informed them that he set sayle from Gades, that all there was secure, not a word of the English Fleet, that there were no Forces in the Iland but a few Garison souldiers; that in the haven rode at anchor galliouns, gallies, shippes of warre, and many Merchant shippes laden with merchandies for the Indian voyage.
16. Upon Sunday the 20th of June, betimes in the morning, they cast anchor neere Saint Sebastians Chappell on the West side of the Iland. Essex, full of courage and youthfull heate, was of opinion that the Forces were presently to be landed. Raleigh, and especially the Lord Admirall were of a contrary minde, which Lord never approved rash counsailes. Yet being intreated, he consented that some should make tryall whether they could land there commodiously, but all in vaine, the sea beating violently upon the shore. Then did Essex earnestly presse that without all delaty they might set upon the shippes of warre, galliouns, and Merchants shippes that lay thicke together in the Bay; but neither did this please the rest, forasmuch as they lay under the safegard of the Forts, from whence, as also from the ships and 25 gallyes, most present danger threatned them.
17. The next day did the Spaniards ships of warre remove themselves at the comming of the tide towards a point of land called Puntall, and the Merchants shippes more inward towards Port-Reall; the English weighed anchor and came into their place, where they were furiously played upon with the ordnance, on the one side from the Fort of Saint Philip, and on the other side from the gallies.
18. Now was it resolved to set upon the Spanish shippes, Essex being so over-joyed thereat that he threw up his hat. This taske was committed to the Lord Thomas Howard, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Robert Southwell, Sir Francis Vere, Sir George Carew, Sir Robert Crosse, and other Captains of lesser shippes; for it was not thought good, being now ebbing water, to hazard the taller shippes among the shelves in a narrow channel, and not deepe. Raleigh therefore (as was resolved), in the middest of the channell in a shippe called the Wastspight, directed his prowe against the Spaniards shippes of warre, which presently fell back. Vere Lord Mashall thundred upon the gallyes out of the Rainebow, but they, lying safe under the Towne with their prowes against him, entertained him roughly, till the Earle of Essex came in to his ayd; for then they saved themselves by flight, and running along the shore by the bridge Suaco, by which the Iland is joyned to the maine, they were hoysted up with an Engine, and withdrew themselves into the open Sea, except one or two which Sir John Wingfield in the shippe called the Vauntgard, stayed. In the meane time the Spaniards shippes of warre cast anchor at Pantall, and turned their broad-sides. But the English shippes, which by reason of the shallownesse of the Channell could not hitherto come neerer, now when it was flood came in with great alacrity. Essex also in his shippe thrust himselfe into the middest of the fight; and the Admirall himselfe with his sonne. In the Miranora they fought very hotly from breake of day till noone, when the Spaniards, their gallyons being shot thorow and thorow, and miserably battered, and in them very many men slaine, resolved to fire their ships, or runne them on land. Many for feare cast themselves over-boord, whereof some got to the shore, some were taken, others drowned, others swimming craved mercy, and the Admirall pittying them, very many of them were saved. The Admirall [flagship] of the Spaniards, called the Saint Philip, of the burden of 1500 tunne, was burnt, the gun-powder being fired by a Moore; one or two more also which were neere her, taking fire, perished with her. The Saint Matthew by the diligence of the Lord Admirall, and the Saint Andrew by the helpe of Sir Thomas Gerard were both saved and taken.
19. As soone as the Sea fight was ended, Essex set 800 men on land at Puntall, a league from the City; and presently sent Sir Coniers Clifford, Sir Christopher Blunt, and Sir Thomas Gerard to breake downe the bridge Suaco, and the Engine whereby the gallyes had escaped, that there might be no accesse into the Iland from the continent, which they carefully performed. He himselfe setting his men in order of battaile, marched in haste to the City with the Earle of Sussex, Lodovic of Nassaw, William Herbert the Earle of Worcesters sonne, Rourk an Irishman, Sir Edward Wingfield, Sir Christopher St. Laurence, Sir Robert Drury, Sir Thomas Germin, Chrisopher Heydon, Alexander Ratcliffe, and the choyce flower of the Nobility. First, the Spanish horse and foot shewed themselves halfe a mile from the Towne, and withall retired. When presently there issued forth more, he commanded his men to retire in order, and soone after (having drawne on the enemy farther) to returne and charge upon them; which was done with such force that they put them to flight, and followed them so close at the heeles that they could scarce enter the gate and shut it. The Earle mounted upon a Bulwarke new begunne next unto the gate, from whence hee saw an entrance, yet so high and steepe that he must leape downe a pikes length. Yet there leaped downe Evans the Earle of Sussex his Lieutenant, Arthur Savage, Captaine of the Earles company, Pooly which bare the Earles red Ensigne, Samuel Bagnall, and others. Meanwhile Sir Francis Vere Marshall, having forced open the Gate, brake in, and with him the Earle himselfe. Now was there a sharpe fight maintained in the streets, untill after halfe an houre they came to the Market-place, where the English were much annoyed with stones throwne downe from the tops of the houses, which were flat. Sir John Wingfield (who in the first conflict having slaine a Spanish Leader was hurt, and passed with his men thus farre), was shot in the head and died, and many were hurt, whereof Samuell Bagnall having received eight wounds, and Arthur Savage besoaked with bloud were Knighted. And almost in the same instant the Lord Admirall, with the Lord Thomas Howard, Sir Wiliam Paget, Raleigh, Sir Robert Southwell, Richard Levison, Philip Woodhouse, Robert Mansfield, and the Saylers, Sir Edward Hobby bearing the Ensigne before them, following hastily entred the Towne. Now did the Spaniards give over fighting and retired into the Castle and the Towne-house; the Towne-house was presently yeelded, the other the next day after, upon conditions that the Citizens should depart in safety with their garments they wore, the rest should goe to the Souldiers for pillage, that 520000 Duckets should be payed for their ransome, and for the payment thereof 40 of the principall Citizens should be sent hostages into England. Shortly after Proclamation was made that no man should offer violence to the Spaniards; the Women, Church-men, and Citizens were conveied to Sant Maries Port.
20. In the meane time Raleigh was commanded, with the lesser shippes which could passe up the channell, to fire the Marchants shippes that were withdrawne to Port-Reall; but for redeeming of them there were offered twenty hundred throusand Duckets. This the Lord Admirall would not heare of, saying that hee was sent to destroy the shipping, not to release them for money. Whilest this matter was arguing, the Duke of Medina Sidony, most of the marchandies being now unladen, commanded that the shippes should be fired, whereby they were all burnt to the great damage of the Merchants. There was found in the City very great provision for warre, a great masse of money pillaged, whilest every one caught what hee could. Wise men have shewed that the Spaniard lost in shippes taken and fired, great Ordnance sunke and carried away, and in victuals consumed, above twenty millions of Duckets. Of the Englaish no man of any great note perished, save Sir John Wingfield; who was honourably interred with a military Funerall in the principall Church. About 60 Martiall men were Knighted for their valour, amonst which, those of best quality were Robert Earle of Sussex, Count Lodovic of Nassaw, Don Christophoro a Portugall, King Antonio’s son, Sir William Herbert, Somerset, Bourk an Irish man, William Howard the Lord Admirall’s sonne, Robert Dudley, George Deveraux, Henry Nevill, Edwin Rich, Richard Leveson, Antony Astley, Henry Lennard, Horace Vere, Arthur Throgmorton, Miles Corbert, Edward Conway, Olivar Lambert, Antony Cooke, John Townesend, Christopher Heydon, Francis Popham, Philip Woodhouse, Alexander Clifford, Maurice Barkley, Charles Blunt, George Gifford, Robert Crosse, James Skidmore, Urian Leigh, John Lea, Richard Weston, Richard Wainman, James Wotton, Richard Rudall, Robert Mansell, William Mounson, John Bowles, Edward Bowes, Humfry Druell, Amias Preston, Robert Remington, Alexander Ratcliffe, John Buck, John Morgan, John Aldridge, WIlliam Ashinden, Matthew Browne, Thomas Acton, Thomas Gates, John Stafford, Gillic Merrick, Thomas Smith, William Pooly, Thomas Palmer, John Lovell, John Gilbert, WIlliam Harvey, John Gray, John Van Duvenwoord, Melchior Lebben, Peter Redgemort, Nicholas Medkerk.
21. After this, an agreement was made for restoring of prisoners on both sides. And it was debated whether Gades was to be left or holden. Essex held opinion that it was to be kept, for that it would be unto the Spaniard as it were thornes in his sides. Hee undertooke with 400 men to keepe it, for as hee might be victualled for three months. The rest were of a contrary opnion; for being every man enriched sufficiently, their mindes were on their Country, so as they would not grant him so much as one ship, nor victuals for one or two months; and hee was constrained against his will to leave Gades. Yet was the whole Iland first spoyled, the Forts razed, many houses in the City defaced with fire, and the fift of July, having packed up their pillage, the whole Fleeet set saile from thence with this commendation given them by the Spaniards, That in sacred things, the English shewed themselves Heretikes, but in all other things Warriours, provident, and truly Noble. From thence they came first to Pharo of Algarbe, fron whence the Inhabitants had fled, and carried away their goods. A Library well furnished was left behinde, and fell to Essex as prize. There the enemies Gallies, which had followed a farre off, came neerer, but as soone as the Lord Admirall commanded them to be gone, they obeyed, and turning their Oares, they as it were in a rejoycing manner bad the English farewell. At Saint Vincents Cape, an impetuous North winde carried the Fleet farre into the Sea; and a councell was called to consider whether they should goe to the Azores, and there wayt for the Indian Caraques. The Earle of Essex propounded that the Land Forces, and the shippes that wanted victuals, or complayned of sicknesse of the Saylors, or other discommodities, might be sent home into England, and he with two of the Queenes shippes and ten other shippes would goe to the Azores. Neither did this like the rest of the Councell, who complained of sicknesse and want of victuals, and except the Lord Thomas Howard and the Low-Countrymen, none of them all almost gave his assent. When hee could not prevayle in this, hee drew them by intreaty that every one testified under his hand his opinion in this matter, that the blame might not be laid upon any man. At the length with much adoe, <he> obtained that they would goe to the Groyne, but not a shippe was to be seene there, nor in the next rode at Farol. When he earnestly urged that the men might be landed and the Groyne assayled, and that they would coast along the shore of Gallicia and set upon the shippes in the havens of Saint Andreas and Saint Sebastian, they would not so much as heare him, but every one, setting sayle, made haste into England, and left him with a few men, who complained that no more was done, and objected certaine errours to some of the Councell of Warre; whereof they easily purged themselves, and seemed to have brought backe profit and solid glory enough, having wrought so much damage to the Spaniard, brought home so much spoile, and every one of their shippes safe. If there were any errour, it seemed to be in this, for that matters were not managed by the command of one. But the Lord Admirall was with good advisement joyned with Essex, to temper his youthful heat, his swelling affectation of glory, and the fortitude of his invincible courage never sufficiently to bee commended, with advised moderation and mature prolonging of time, which are thought to be singular parts of Military discipline. Although by this which I have already said, it may sufficiently appeare how great glory, what great profit did redound to the Queene and the English Nation by this voyage, and how great detriment to the Spaniard, yet have I thought it good to adde this which followeth, out of a short discourse of the Earle of Essex himselfe. For matter of glory, the English have not awaited the Spaniard the most potent King of the World, when hee threatned and prepared a deadly warre against England, but have provoked him to battell, as it were, on his owne ground; they have chaced and vanquished a most compleatly provided fleet of his, and in it the greatest of his ships; they have brought home in triumph two Gallyons; they have with a few shippes put to flight 15 gallyes, set many English men at liberty which were condemned to the gallyes, and released many Spanish prisoners, with commendations for their clemency; they no sooner saw, then conquered the strongest fortified City of the furthermost part of Spaine; they stayed full 13 dayes in the Enemies Countrey. For matter of profit, besides those two Gallyeons for the strengthening of the English Fleet, they have brought home about 100 great Peeces of brasse Ordnance and other rich spoyles. The Souldiers and Saylors are returned laden with pillage, and more enriched and encouraged to another voyage. As for damages done to the Spaniard, he hath lost 13 of his best ships of warre, 40 Indian shippes of burden, and 4 other Merchants ships. He hath lost also very great store of provision for warre both by Sea and Land, and victuals, so that it seemeth he cannot be able but in a long time to arme and set forth a Fleet for warre againe; and hath lost all opportunity of sending over any Marchandies this yeere into New-Spaine, and of receiving any from thence; and (which is a matter of no small moment), the English have learned how easily the coast Townes of Spaine may be taken by force.
22. The Queene at their returne welcomed them very graciously, and gave singular thankes to every of them of better note, especially to Essex and th Admirall, whom shee extolled with extraordinary praises. And bethinking her selfe which of all these she might make Governor of the Briell, a Port Towne of great importance, delivered to her by the Estates in caution for her money (for the Lord Sheffield had now voluntarily resigned that government), Sir Francis Vere, a Colonell of the English under the Estates, came into her minde as the most worthy. And though some of the chiefe Nobility made suite for the place, and Essex opposed him, and others thought that a more Noble man was fittest to be preferred, yet sh,e knowing the mans Nobility (for he was Nephew to John Vere the 15th Earle of Oxford), and having had proofe of his fidelity and fortitude, for that he had valiantly discomfited the Spaniards at Rheinberk, had taken the Castles of Litenhoven and Burick, and had also recovered the Fort of Zutphen; she (I say) after most deliberate advisement, not onely preferred him before the rest, but also permitted him withall to hold his place among the Estates, which others affected; although (as shee said her selfe) it might seeme not so fit that he which served under the Estates pay should have the charge of a Towne mortgaged by the Estates. This the Earle of Essex heavily stomacked, who had commended others; but more disdainfully yet openly he stomacked that, whilest he was absent, Sir Robert Cecyl was chosen to be Secretary, to which Office he had a good while before commended Sir Thomas Bodley for his approved wisedome in the affaires of the Low-Countreies, with such heaped praises as the fittest man, and had detracted Cecyl with such odious comparisons that neither the Queene was pleased (who now began to disapprove of those whom he most commended) to admit him for Secreatry, nor the Lord Treasurer thought good to joyne him as a Colleague with his sonne, which they had both determined to doe before such time as by those immoderate praises given him by Essex, they began to suspect him to be drawne to side with Essex.
23. The Spaniard in the meane time, to recover his honour lost at Gades, and heale himselfe of his losses, renewed his Fleet at Lisbone, gathering shippes from all places, armed strangers shippes in the havens of Spaine, leavied forces, and sent them with very many Irish fugitives to Farol (from whence they should set sayle for England and Ireland). But in the middest of their voyage (as the report went) a very foule storme arising, very many shippes were cast away, either split upon the Rockes or swallowed of the waves, so as the very Ayre seemed to fight for the Queene, for she heard of her enemies perishing before she heard of their putting to Sea. She, neverthelesse, being attentive against all assayes, repaired the Maritime Castles of Sandsfort, Portland, Hurst, Southsey, Calshort, Saint Andrews, and Saint Maudites with new works, and furnished them with munition. And that there might grow the firmer amity with the French King, a mutuall league offensive and defensive against the Spaniard was entred into by the procurement of the Duke of Bullioun and Nicholas Harley Sancy, in these words: The former treaties and confederacies shall be confirmed, and continue in force, saving so farre forth as in this present treaty any thing may be derogated from them. Unto this League shall bee united all Princes and States whom it concerneth to beware of the Spaniard’s machinations. An Army shall be levied as soone as may be, to invade the Spaniard. Neither the King nor the Queene shall treat of any peace or truce without the consent of each other. Because the Spaniard now oppugneth the dominions of France next unto the Netherlands, the Queene shall send 4000 foot to serve the King this yeere, the space of six moneths in such places as shall not be fifty miles distant from Bulloign on the the Sea. They shall also serve in like manner so long space the yeeres next following, if the State of England may commodiously permit it; wherein the King shall stand to the Queenes affirmation and conscience. When the Irish rebellion shall be appeased, the Queenes pleasure shall be stood unto, whether shee will increase the ayd of 4000 men. The English shall be received into the Kings pay from the day of their arrivall in France, untill the day of their departure. The Queene shall supply that number from time to time; they shall be payed by the Queenes Officers, and with her money monethly. For which, the King shall bee tyed to satisfie her fully within six moneths, foure Townes being delivered for caution. If the King shall have need of a greater number, the Queene shall leavy a greater number in England, whom the King shall pay out of his owne money. The English which shall serve the King shall bee subject to the King’s Officers, and be punished by them; yet so that the English Captaines be called by the Kings Officers, and be assistant unto them in judgement. If the Queene be invaded, and shall require the Kings ayd, he shall wihin two moneths leavie 4000 foot, which shall bee sent at the Kings charges into England, and shall not be drawne above 50 miles from the shore, and shall be payed by the Queene from the day of their arrivall in England. The same French souldiers shall be subject to the Queenes Officers in manner aforesaid. Their number in like manner the King shall supply. The one shall supply unto the other all munition and provision for warre, so farre forth as they may without prejudice to their owne State. They shall reciprocally defend the Merchants being subjects of either Prince, in either Princes kingdomes. The King shall not suffer the English to be vexed in the cause of Religion. The Captains and Souldiers payes shall be subscribed in a Schedule. Shortly after, there was another treaty had, wherein it was agreed, That this yeere no more then 2000 English should be sent over, which should serve at Bolloign and Monstreille only, unlesse the King himselfe should be personally present in Picardy, etc. To these things the Queene was sworne in her Chappell at Greenwich the 29th of August, into the hands of Henry de la Tour, Duke of Bullioun, Vicount Turaine, and Marshall of France, the Bishop of Chichester holding to her the Booke of the Gospels, and a great multitude of Noblemen standing round about. In the moneth of September Gilbert Talbot Earle of Shrewbury was sent Embassadour into France, that the King likewise should take the oath into his hands; to present Sir Antony Mildemay for Embassadour in the roome of Sir Henry Unton, who was dead in France; and to invest the King with the Ensignes of the Order of Saint George, into which Order being dedicated by the first institution to Military men, the Queene had chosen him as a Prince most flourishing in Martiall glory. And not long after, Sir Thomas Baskervill went over into Picardy with 2000 English foot, according to the last contract.
24. Amongst the warre-like proceedings, a mischievous kinde of men, taking upon them the authority and Badges of the Queenes Pursuivants, wandred up and downe England with counterfeit warrants and subscriptions of the Queens Counsailors and Commissioners in causes Ecclesiasticall, searching the houses of Widowes and Papists, and taking away by extortion Plate, Jewels, and whatsoever bare the Image of Christ or the Saints, as things unlawfull. The travelling charges due to Pursuivants they roughly exacted, and cheated many fearefull people of their money, that they might not appeare before the Magistrates. Of these men some were taken and, compelled to restore their stollen goods, lost their eares in the Pillary, and were branded in the fore-head as counterfeits and cozeners. Neverthelesse, this severity could not represse the pilfring dishonesty of such men untill Proclamation was made that the Queenes Pursuivants should not exact their travailing fees before such time as the persons summoned did appeare, and that they should come, together with the parties summoned, to the Magistrates; this if they refused, the persons summoned should not appeare. If many were summoned by one and the same warrant, against one and the same day, that the Pursuivants also should be present; that if the person summoned conceived any suspicion against the Pursuivant, he might cause him to be brought before the next Justice of Peace to bee examined, that the man might bee knowne; that the persons summoned should not upon paine of imprisonment corrupt the Pursuivants with money, that they might not appear; also that the Pursuivants should not receive any money with that condition, unlesse they would loose their places, be imprisoned, and most grievously punished.
25. This yeere returned into England Thomas Arundell of Wardour, who being commended by the Queenes letters as her kinsman, and having done singular good service in the Hungarian warre at Gran against the Turkes, the Emperour by his Letters Patents created Earle of the holy Empire, and all and every his heires and posterity and descendants lawfully borne, of both sexes, and in a perpetuall course to be borne Earles and Countesses of the holy Empire. Which title those which doe enjoy, are also said to enjoy these priviledges, that they have their place and voice in the Imperiall Diets, may purchase Lands in the Empire, leavy voluntary Souldiers, and are not to be summoned to judgement in any Court but the Imperiall Chamber. When hee, being returned, began to be knowne amongst the Common people by this title of honour, a question arose whether such a title conferred by a forraine Prince upon the Queenes subject without acquainting her were to be admitted. Some there were which thought that the rewards bestowed in respect of vertue, by what Prince soever, are to be admitted; for vertue languisheth unlesse well-deservers be encouraged by rewards. That Henry the 3rd King of England graciously acknowledged Reynald Mohun Earle of Somersete, created by the Bishop of Rome by his Apostolike authority. That King Henry the 8th did so congratulate Robert Carson (whom for his military vertue the Emperour Maximilian the first had created Baron of the sacred Empire) that hee enroled him amongst the Barons of England, and granted him a yeerly pension to maintaine his dignity. Also that certaine Scottish Warriours had received titles from the French Kings, namely: Archibald Douglas of Wigton the title of Duke of Tours; and John Steuart the title of Earle of Vureux. And that the Kings of Scots have thought this to redound to the honour of that Nation. But the Barons of England, gessing that this would be prejudiciall to them and theirs in prerogative of honour, if they and their children should give place to such a new upstart Earle and his issue, which might be propagated in infinitum, argued to the contrary in this manner: That such titles of honour are not to be accepted by Subjects, nor admitted by the Prince; that it belongeth onely to the Prince, and not to any other whatsoever, to distribute dignities to their Subjects, according to that saying of Valerian the Emperour, Let that dignity onely hold, which is borne by our will. For much is detracted from the Princes Majesty and the subjects obedience, if they may be permitted to receive honours from forraigne Princes; for a tacit contract of fidelity seemeth to passe betweene the Honourer and the honoured. That such titles are secret enticements to withdraw the hearts of Subjects from their Princes. That an action of theft lyeth against him that shall brand another mans sheepe with his marke, and an action of fraud against him, that by strowing [strewing] of food shall entice another mans sheepe to his flocke. That though Soveraigne Princes be not bound by these lawes, yet are they bound by the equity of lawes, even out of the law of nature; as in the Common-wealth of Rome, no man could be a Citizen of Rome and of another City, whereupon Pomponius Atticus refused to be chosen a Citizen of Athens lest hee should loose the priviledge of the City of Rome. So in the State of Venice and Genua, whosoever doe receive either Ecclesiasticall dignities from the Pope, or Temporall dignities from a forraigne Prince, are not called to publike Offices, as being men of suspected fidelitiy. It may be that Henry the 3rd out of his owne simplicty and the iniquity of the times admitted Earle Mohune, being thrust upon him by the Bishop of Rome, considering that his father when the Kingdome was interdicted, and hee, excommunicate and vexed with most unworthy injuries, was driven to acknowledge himselfe a vassall of the Bishop of Rome, and hee himselfe being terrified permitted those of Rome to exhaust the wealth of England. Yet by the publicke Records it appeareth that Mohune was not acknowledged for an Earle. That Henry the 8th accompted Curson for a Baron of England for this cause, that hee might betimes smother the vaine title of Baron of the Holy empire; but hee granted him no voice in Parliaments. No marvaile though the Scots received honours from the French, forasmuch as by the Lilly Border in the Kings Armes, they make shew that they are under the protection of the French Flowers de Luce. Some were of opinion that an Earle of the sacred Empire was to be holden in no other degree then publike Notaries, and other such like Counts and Vicounts of the sacred Palace of Lateran, created by the Bishop of Rome, or the Doctors of Physicke, Lawyers, Grammarians, and Rhetoricians of the royall Palace, which having professed 20 yeeres, in a ridiculous vanity doe boast themselves for Counts Palatine; whereas in these daies, the title of Count Palatine is highly honoured, as he which hath amongst us royall jurisdiction in his Tribunalls, and Kingly power in fees, Inheritances escheated, etc. The Queene being asked her opinion hereof, said, Betweene Princes and their Subjects there is a most straight tye of affections. As chaste women ought not to cast their eye upon any other then their husbands, so neither ought subjects to cast their eyes upon any other Prince then him whom God hath given them. I would not have my sheepe branded with another mans marke; I would not they should follow the whistle of a strange Shepheard.
26. Within this yeere, some persons of more remarkable note and Nobility, were called out of this life, whereof the most worthy of memory were: John Puckering, Lord Keeper of the Great Seale of England; who though hee were himselfe an upright man, yet by reason of the briberies and corruptions of his servants in selling of Church livings, had no good report amongst the Church men. In his roome succeeded Thomas Egerton the Queenes Atturney Generall, with great expectation and opinion of integrity.
27. Richard Fletcher Bishop of London, a Courtly Prelate; who while by immoderate taking of Tobacco, hee smothered the cares hee tooke by meanes of his unlucky marriage, and by the Queene misliked (who did not so well like of married Bishops), breathed out his life.
28. Henry Cary Lord Hunsdon, Lord Chamberlaine of the Queenes House-hold, Governour of Barwicke, and Knight of the Order of Saint George; a man of great spirit but chollericke, who by his kindred to the Queene, to whom he was Cousin German, attained to these honours and moderate wealth; as for great wealth hee never sought after. To him succeeded in the honour George his sonne, and in the Office of Lord Chamberlaine the Lord Cobham, who survived him but a few months.
29. Sir Francis Knolles, who had married the Lord Hunsdons sister, and had lived an exile in Germany for the truth of the Gospell; first Vice-Chamberlaine to the Queene, then Capaine of the Guard, and afterwards Treasurer of the Queenes House-hold, and chosen in to the Order of Saint George; after whom was substituted in the Office of Treasurer Roger Lord North, and Sir William Knolles his sonne was made Controller.
30. And about the end of the yeere, Henry Hastings Earle of Huntingdon, the third of this stocke, President of the Councell in the North; who being a man of a milde nature, and inflamed with zeale of the purer Religion, diminished very much of his patrimony by relieving to his great costs the hotter spirited Ministers. He was bured at Ashbey de la Zouch, in the County of Leicester; and by his death was advanced Francis Lord Hastings, his Nephew by his brother George, who succeeded him in the honour. Afterward, the government of the Councell of the North parts was committed to Matthew Hutton Archbishop of Yorke, together with all manner of jurisdiction, but without the title of President.
31. And amongst so many men is not to be passed over with silence Margaret Clifford Countesse of Darby, the onely daughter of Henry Clifford Earle of Cumberland, by Eleanore Brandon Neece to King Henry the 8th; who out of her womanish weakenesse and curiosity, consulting with wizards or cunning men in a credulous vanity, and I know not what ambicious hope, had in a manner lost the Queenes favour a little before her death.