- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1592
IN the first beginning of this yeere, the King proclaimed Bothwell to have beene the Author of this dangerous and ignominious enterprise, that hee was a man to compact of vices, that hee had renounced all vertues, and out of an insolent perversenesse insisted against God and the authority ordained of God, that after his returne out of Italy hee had intermedled in all Commotion, though they concerned him nothing at all; that hee had wickedly slain David Humes, for which notwithstanding he had his pardon, and so heaping up one lewd fact upon another, hee feared lest the Law would proceed against him; and the rather, for that a Wizard of Fortune Teller in Italy had foretold him that destruction threatened him from the just judgement of the King; that this feare was increaed when he had furiously slaine Willam Steward of Achiltre the Kings servant; that from thence forth hee associated himselfe with all impious and bloudy men, and such as were like himselfe; that hee conspired with the Pope and the Spaniard the destruction of both Kingdomes; that afterwards he sided with those which at Dee-brig farre from the Court had out of private fudes taken Armes against some of the Court; that they presently upon the Kings comming laid away their Armes, but hee encamped neere Edenburgh the Kings Seat, intercepted some, and retyred not before such time as the King was in the field ready to encounter him; that soone after, betakling him to Diabolical Arts, he consulted with Necromancers and Witches about making away the King whilest hee was absent in Denmarke, out of a feare of deserved punishment, and hope of impunity and the Diadem; that hereupon being cast in prison, when hee was even to be delivered upon certaine conditions, the conscience of his wickednesse pricking him, hee brake out of prison, and gathering together a rabble of most debosh’t men, invaded the Kings house with no other intent then that having made away the King, and troden justice under foot, he might domineere the more licentiously; that he searched diligently for the King, set fire to his Chamber doore, assayed to open the Queenes Chamber with a Hammer, slew some of the Kings servants, wounded others; and this, for no other cause then his malice against the King. The King therefore set forth a Proclamation that no man should lodge, relieve, or minister necessaries to him or his associates, upon such paine as is appointed to Receivers of Traitors.
2. How the Earle of Huntley, by authority of this Proclamation and the setting on of the Chancellor, went forth with an Armed power to prosecute the Rebell, and assaulted the Earle of Murreys house, who had lodged Bothwell; how Murrey was slaine, Huntley for the same improsioned, and after a short time being delivered upon security for appearence to his tryall, hee returned home, where hee was most grievously tossed and turmoiled by the Clan-Hattens and Murrey’s friends boyling for a revenge, and both sustained and did many and great damages, belongeth properly to the Scottish History; and greatly to the English to adjoyne these few Scottish matters following.
3. Bothwell having gathered together a tumultuary power of men out of the borders and England, where had lurked, returned into Scotland, and set once againe upon the King in the moneth of June in the Kings house at Falkland, but with no better successe then before; for no sooner did he see the Courtiers making resistance but he fearefully and hastily fled into England. Yet was the Chancellor removed from the Court by his friends. The Jesuites in the meane time tempted the minds of the Noblemen every where to the advancement of the Popish Religion. In like manner the Ministers, lest Religion should receive any detriment, preferred a bill in Parliament that they which would not professe the Religion established in Scotland should forthwith be Excommunicate, and if they would not professe it after a yeere, all their lands and goods should bee confiscate during their lives. Amongst those whom they Excommunicated was one George Kerr, Doctor of the Law, who intending a little before the end of the yeere to go into Spaine, the Ministers so subtly pursued him that as hee was ready to take shippe they apprehended him, and while they searched all his things, they found certaine blanks, some in the form of letters missive inscribed to the King of Spaine, others for secret compacts, all of them subscribed with the names and Seales of the William Earle of Angusse, George Earle of Huntley, Francis Earle of Aroll, and Patrick Gordon of Achindoon. But these things let the Scots write more fully, who know them more perfectly.
4. The time now requireth that wee returne to English matters; for Ireland was never more quiet. But there was a most exact inquiry made throughout the whole land into the life, manners, words, and actions of Sir John Perot late Lord Deputy; whom for his wisedome and paines taken, the Queene tooke unto her Privy Councell, and Hatton Lord and Chancellour, in favour of a follower of his, and other his adversaries in Court laboured tooth and nayle to put him from his place, as a man over-proud. And so farre was the matter brought, that when they found an informer or two in Ireland, though Hatton were now dead, they called him in the moneth of April to his tryal, Burghley Lord Treasurer labouring to the contrary. The Commissioners were Henry Lord Hunsden, Thomas Lord Buckhurst, Sir Robert Cecyl, the Lord Burghleys sonne (who was lately for the great hope of him, and for the comfort of his father, employed in matters concerning the State, and called to the Privy councell), Sir John Fortescue, Sir John Wolley, and some Justicers.
5. He was charged first to have violated the Queenes Majesty by opprobrious words, and to have said shee was illegitimate, fearefull, and curious, that she cared not for military men, that she had hindered him from reducing Ulster into order, and that shee would one day stand in neede of his helpe. Secondly, that he had relieved most knowne traitors and Romish Priests. Thirdly, that he had secretly communicated Councels with the Prince of Parma and the Queenes enemies. Fourthly, that he had cherished the rebellions of O-Rork and those of the house of Burgh. Hee could not deny but the had violated the Queenes Majesty with words, but he answered, Those words were not of any corrupt thought; he was sorry with his heart that they fell from him heedlessly and unadvisedly through anger and indiscretion, when hee was forbidden to perfect things well begunne in Ireland. The rest of the matters, as being neither confirmed by open evidence, nor competent witnesses, hee cleered, being a man most averse from the Popish Religion.
6. Amongst the accusers and witnesses were Philip Williams, sometimes his Secretary, Dionyse O-Roghan, an Irish married Priest, to whom, having counterfeited his hand-writing, he had given a pardon for his life, to the end to make use of him for the discovering of the practises of Priests, and Walton a man of a prostitute credite. And when he had sharpely defended his cause till eleven of the clocke at night against Popham the Queenes Atturney and the rest of the Lawyers, he was by the twelve men pronounced guilty of Treason. But the sentence of death was prorogued to another day; which being of necessity to be given according to forme of Law, was after twenty daies pronounced through the instance of his adversaries. Upon which day it is reported that Burghley wept for his hard fortune, and sighing said, Hatred the more injust it is, so much the more sharp. O-Roghan the Masse Priest had a pension given him of forty pounds a yeere. Perot dyed in the moneth of September in the Tower of London of sicknesse, when there was some hope given him of life, the Queenes displeasure being asswaged. For in this time shee was often heard to commend that rescript of Theodosius, Honorius, and Arcadius, If any man speake ill of the Emperour, if of lightnesse, it is to be contemned; if of madnesse, to be pittied; if of injury, to be remitted. His lands came by a former conveighance and the Queenes favour, to his sonne, who had married the Earle of Essex his sister. Thus did a well deserving and Noble Gentleman procure his owne ruine through the unbridled saucinesse of his tongue. For obprobrious speeches doe leave a deepe and sharpe impression in Princes minds.
7. We have said before that the French King encamped the last yeere when cold weather came in at Roan, with his auxiliary English under the command of the Earle of Essex; and there hee wintered in misery with the small forces which he had. The Spring approaching, when being wearyed with all the troubles of a winter siege, and too weake to force that most strong city, and aporoached no neerer with his Campe (though 2000 men were sent him out of England), nor attempting any thing, nor harkened unto Essex, who to winne some glory tooke upon him to make a breach with the English forces and enter the City (for the provident French thought it an unworthy thing to expose that most wealthy City, which they hoped might ere long be reduced under their power, to the pillaging of the English), Essex being out of all hope of doing any great exploits, after hee had in vaine challenged Villars, Governour of Roan to a single combat, left his men much wasted, to the trust of Sir Roger Williams, and bad the French King farewell, hastening into England, being called home by the Queene, and advertised by his friends that his adversaries in Cour beset the Queenes eares, and taking advantage of his absence, cunningly drew her favour from him. Within a few dayes after, the French King also himselfe, his men slipping away, the enemy often sallying forth, and the Prince of Parma ready to fall upon him, began to breake up this lingering siege, and leaving some of his Forces in the Campe, betooke himselfe with the rest to Diepe. For the Prince of Parma, being now called in againe by the French Leaguers, brought an Army into France with Reinutio his sonne, and making shew as if hee would relieve the Garrisons in Chauivert, tooke Chasteau Neuf, and skirmishing with good successe agains the Kings Horce-Forces at Aumarl, gave such hart to those of Roan that they issued forth, invaded the Kings Camp, and seized upon his Ordnance. Parma came backe to Abbeville, as if he would returne home. The King throught him to be returned, and for want of victuals and provision brake up the seidge, discharging a great part of his Army. But the Prince of Parma presently taking the opportunity, pursued his enterprise with greater forces, tooke Caudebeck, opened the river Seine for conveying of victuals into the famished City; being entred, he confirmed the Rebels, and with Military subtilty always delaying to fight, he returned home sicke in body, and not without losse of men. At which time, how valiantly the English behaved themselves in fight, when the vauntgard of the Leaguers were driven out of their trenches at Yuecot, and routed, the King himselfe witnessed by his letters to the Queene sent from Vaccara Ville, wherein he extolled Sir Roger Williams as another Caesar, and commended Sir Matthew Morgan.
8. The King, being almost over-whelmed with this large weight of warres, fled againe of necessity to Queene Elizabeth, craving warlike provision and 6000 men for the British Warre. She consented to send him 4000 men and certaine Peeces of Ordnance with provision, contracting hereuon with Beavoir Nocte, and Sancy, sent Commissioners or Embassadors from the King, that the King should neither enter into peace with the Leaguers, unlesse they first submitted themselves, and gave the King their assistance to expell the Spaniards out of France, nor with the Spaniards with her consent. That hee should assigne unto the English warring in Britaine a fortified Towne, and a Haven for a place of Retreit. That hee should joyne unto them 4000 French Foot and 1000 Horse. That hee should repay within a yeere the charges of transporting, and the money for the Souldiers pay; and that this Contract should bee recorded in the Chamber of Accompts. Hereupon was Norris, who had beene called home out of Britaine to informe the Queene of the state of Britaine, sent thither againe in the Month of October. Where when the French joyned not with him, nor performed promise, but hee being called out of Britaine, and poasted hither and thither, was commanded to make warre in Le Maine and Normandy, whilest the Spaniards made themselves strong in Britaine. The Queene tooke it very heavily, and in vaine exacted promises by her letters; and had gone nigh to have called her men home, had shee not beene certainly advertised that the Prince of Parma had a purpose to come now the third time into France to fill up the Spanish Army in Britaine, and seize upon the Ports.
9. But while hee was preparing for this Expedition, hee died, when he had governed the Low-Countries under the Spaniard the space of 14 yeeres. A Prince accomplished with all vertues fit for a Commander, having worthily gained both love and honour even amongst his enemies; and whom Queene Elizabeth never named but honourably, and with commendations; yet warily, lest her praises might hurt him.
10. Shee in the meane time, well knowing that the Spaniard made warre, not so much with the strength of Spaine, as with the gold of America, whereby hee dived everywhere into the secrets of Princes, corrupted their councels, and undermined their Subjects fidelities, resolved to send Sir Walter Raleigh with 15 shippes of Warre into America to possesse himselfe of Panama, whither the gold is brought, or to intecept the Spanish Fleete. But hee, being stayed by contrary winds full three months in the Haven, set sayle somewhat too late. Having passed Cabo Saint Maria in Spaine, at the Lands end, hee received certaine intelligence that the King of Spaine had commanded that no man should set sayle from America this yeere. Shortly after, a foule Tempest dispersed the English Fleete all over the Sea, and drowned their ship boats, whereby, hee loosing the opportunity of his Designe, and being about to returne, divided the Fleete into two parts, the one hee committed to Sir John Borroughs, the Lord Borroughs his second son, the other to Sir Martin Fourbisher. To Sir Martin hee gave in charge to lye off and upon the coasts of Spaine, to prohibite the approach of shipping. And hee commanded Sir John Borroughs to stay at the Azores for the comming of the Caraques out of East India. And this Designe proved not fruitlesse; for while the Spanish Admirall had an eye upon Fourbisher, hee neglected the defence of the Caraques. Borroughs (to say no thing of the small shippes hee tooke from the Spaniards, and out of what great danger hee freed himselfe by his great valour, being inclosed between the Spanish shoare and the enemies Fleete), arriving at Sancta Cruce, a small Towne in the Isle of Flores, after a few daies had sight of a Portugall Caraque attended upon by three English shippes of the Earle of Cumberland, ready to fall upon her; yet they could not come neere unto her by reason of a great calme. But a storme arising by nigh, forced both the English and Portugals to weigh Anchor. As soone as day appeared, the English saw the Portugals both Marchants and Mariners unlading the Caraque in all hast at the Flores, who as soone as the English approached, presently set fire on the ship. Borroughs, being informed by one or two Prisoners hee had taken that other greater Caraques followed, quartered all the shippes hee had two leagues asunder, neere the Iland, with so great an extent that they might see all things round about a farre off. They had not waited long, when a huge Caraque called the Mother of God, which was 165 foot long from the Prow to the Sterne, and 7 Deckes high, came in, laden with rich Marchandies, and manned with 600 men.
11. This Caraque the English played upon furiously with their Ordnance from all sides, being the more bold in hope of a rich Prize. Yet they soone desisted, being terrified with the tallnesse of the ship and multitude of the defenders, untill Sir Robert Crosse layed the Queenes ship called the Providence acrosse the Prow of the Caraque, and sustained the fight three whole houres alone. And then also the rest from all sides set upon her, especially at the sterne, that no man durst any longer handle the same. The first man that entred was Crosse, and soone after others; and having gotten the victory, found all places full of slaughtered bodies, and men halfe dead with the dead, and whole men with the hurt confusedly intermingled, yeelding a most dolefull spectacle; insomuch, as pity entered into their hearts, and they used the victory most mercifully. The Booty which they brought home was worth by one report one hundred and fifty thousand pounds English, besides that which the Captaines, Sayler, and Souldiers out of their inbred ravenous greedinesse imbezelled away. But whereas sharpe inquiry was made by Commissioners into this kind of men, touching goods imbezelled, as if they had not payed due custome, and there came forth a Proclamation (as others had done now and then before) that they should bring forth the goods privily conveighed away, unlesse they would suffer punishment for their faults as Thieves and Pirates; yet their dishonesty deluded by the industry of the Commissioners, and the strictnesse of the Edict, even by perjuries. For they said, They had rather hazard their soules in the hands of a mercifull God, by perjury, then their fortunes, gotten with perill of their lives, in the hands of unmercifull men.
12. And surely no lesse was the dishonesty of certaine Merchants, who in their gaping avarice, while warre was thus openly made (though not denounced) betweene the English and the Spaniards, secretly furnished the Spaniards with Ordnance, as well brasse as iron, wherewith they armed their shippes. Which as soone as the Queene found, shee prohibited the same by a strict Proclamation, under such penalty as is inflicted upon those which ayde the enemies of their Country. And withall, shee forbad that the Iron-workers should from thenceforth cast any Ordnance bigger then those which are called Minnions, and not of above sixteene thousand pounds weight.
13. The Queene, going on Progresse in the Summer months, tooke her Journey through Oxford, where shee stayed certaine dayes, being delighted with most elegant Orations, Stage-playes, and learned disputations, and daintily feasted by the Lord Buckhurst, Chancellor of the University. At aer departure, shee bad them farewell with a Latine Oration wherein she professed that she farre preferred the most knowne love of the University men before all other their delights, though most pleasing unto her. For which love shee rendered them very great thankes, made a Prayer, and gave them counsaile. Her Prayer was that as she wished nothing more then the safety of the whole Kingdome, with the most happy security and honour thereof, so also that the University (as being one of the lights of the kingdome) might daily shine more gloriously, and flourish for ever. Her Counsaile was that they would first serve God, not after the curiosity of some, but that they would first serve God and the Land; that they would not goe before the Lawes, but follow them; not dispute whether better might bee prescribed, but keepe those prescribed already; obey their superiors; and lastly, embrace one another in brotherly pietie and concord.
14. This summer, as also the last, there as so great a drought all over England that not onely the fields, but fountaines also were dryed up, and very many beasts dyed every where of thirst. The Thames also the noblest River of all Britain, then which other River in all England feeleth the flowing in of the Ocean farther (for it swelleth twice in a naturally day above 60 miles from the mouth, and is increased with many cleere waters from all parts), failed so of water the fift day of September, to the great admiration of all men, that a man might ride over it neere London Bridge, so shallow was the Channell. Whether this were through that drought, or the impetuous violence of a North-East wind, which blew furiously the space of two dayes together, and as well drove the fresh waters, as drove backe the Sea-tide, I cannot say; especially, the Moone being now at full and descending South-ward, and the Aeuquinox being at hand, at which times the Sea-faring men have observed that the Tides rise highest in the Thames. There were some which argued out of the secrets of deepe Philosophy that this happened by hidden force of Nature, to wit, Like as the quartan Ague commeth at an houre, as the Gout answereth in a time, as a Purgation, if nothing have hindered it, keepeth a set day, as the birth is ready at her moneth; so have the waters their distance of time, in which they ebbe and flow. But some distances, because they are lesser, are therefore easie to bee observed; and some are greater, and no lesse certaine. And what marvaile, when we see that the order of things, and nature proceedeth by appointed seasons? The Winter hath never strayed; the Summer hath growne hote in his season; Autumne, and the Spring are changed according to their custome. As well the Solstice as the Aequinox have kept their just dayes. There are also under the earth certaine rights and properties of nature, to us lesse knowne, but yet no lesse certaine. Beleeve it to bee underneath, whatsoever thou seest above.
15. This yeere quietly departed this life Anthony Browne, Viscount Montacute, the sonne of Anthony Master of the Queenes hors, and Standard-bearer of England, whom Queene Mary honoured with this title for that his Grandmother had beene the daughter and one of the heirs of John Nevill, Marquesse Montacute, gave him the Order of the Garter, and sent him to Rome with others to tender obedience to the See of Rome in the behalfe of the whole Realm. Queene Elizabeth, having had experience of his fidelity, held him most deere (though an earnest Roman Catholike), and a little before his death visited him. For shee knew that he embraced the Religion in regard of his first breeding therein and the perwasion of his minde, not of out of faction, as many did. To him succeeded Anthony his sonnes son, who degenerated not from his Grandfather. A little before that time dyed Henry Lord Scrope of Bolton, in like sort Knight of the Order of the Garter, and Warden fo the West march towards Scotland, a man often mentioned, leaving for successor his sonne Thomas by Margaret Howard, sister to the last Duke of Norfolke.
16. And (one which is not to be passed over in silence) Christopher Wray, Lord Chiefe Justicer in the Kings Bench, a man already often mentioned, and to be reverenced for his learning in the Law, integrity, and constancy, happy in his issue, and one who deserved well of Magdalen Colledge in Cambridge. After him succeeded in this office John Popham the Queenes Atturney, a man of sensorious severity.