- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1590
QUEENE Elizabeth, who had alwaies made peace the summe of her cogitations, and therefore had never cast away the cares of warre lest shee should be surprized at unawares by the Spaniard, in the very beginning of the Spring maketh leavyes of men in England and the South part of Ireland; there shee fortifieth Duncanon at the mouth of the River Suire, and Milford Haven in Wales,with new workes; for the safe-guarding of her Navy shee assigneth 8970 pounds of English money or Sterling yeerly; and though in the yeere 1587 for the leavying of an Army in Germany under the command of the Baron Dolma for the King of Navarre shee had lent 101560 French Crownes by Sir Horatio Pallavicine, and the last yeere 71165 more, upon bonds given by Beavoir, Buhy, and Buzenval, and had spent 20000 in sending over the auxiliary forces under the Lord Willoughbey, neverthelesse this yeere upon security given by the Vicount Turain shee lent first 33333 Crownes more for the leavying of an Army in Germany under the conduct of the Prince of Anhols, and afterward as much upon security given by Beavoir and Incarvill. Moreover, every two months shee payed to the Garisons in Flushing and Briell 125000 florens, and to 3000 horse and foot serving in the Netherlands, 26000 more; shee sent forth many ships every way, shee was at great charges against the attempts of the Bishop of Rome and the Spaniard in Scotland, and also shee repayed beyond expectation the money borrowed not long since of her Subjects. Insomuch as very many admired whence this wealth came to supply these turnes, seeing shee was in no mans debt (as almost all other Princes were), and was able to defend her selfe and hers without forraigne helps, which not one of her neighbour Kings could doe.
2. But the truth is, shee being providently frugall, scarcely spent any thing but for the maintainance of her Royal honour, the defence of her Kingdom, or the relieving of her neighbours. And Burghley Lord Treasurer looked narrowly into those which had the charge of Customes and Imposts, by whose avarice many things were under-hand imbezeled, and through their negligences much was not exacted; especially after such time as the Queene being not long before informed by one Caermarden a diligent and subtill fellow, of the mysteries of the Farmers of her Customes, had caused Sir Thomas Smith Customer (as they call him) who had bought or farmed her Customes for 14000 pounds a yeere of English money, to pay from thence forth 42000 pounds, contributing no small summe of money in recompence for so gainfull a bargaine so many yeeres, and afterwards to pay 50000 pounds for the same, although the Lord Treasurer, Leicester, and Walsingham laboured to the contrary, opposed themselves against Caermarden, commanded the Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber not to let him in, yea and expostulated with the Queene as if this would tend to the disgrace of her and her Councell, if she should harken to the accusations of so silly an Informer. But shee answered that it was the duty of a Prince to hold the highest in equall right with the lowest; that such as accuse Magistrates and Councellors rashly are to bee punished, they which accuse them justly, to be heard; that she was Queene of the lowest as well as of the greatest, neither would shee stoppe her eares against them, nor endure that the Farmers of the Customes should like Horse-leeches sucke themselves fat with the goods of the Common-wealth whilest the poore Treasury waxeth leane, nor that the Treasury should abound with the spoyles of poore men. Certainly, shee ever detested extortions and all bitternesse in exacting extraordinary contributions, which the former Kings sweened with the flattring names of The peoples liberality, benevolence, and friendly grant, and other such like. The taxing of living creatures by the powle [poll], propounded in Edward the 6th his raighe, shee would not suffer to be once named. Besides, the people alwaies gave Subsidies cheerefully, and through the taxation by cesement [census] seemed greater then in old time, yet was there no rough manner of taxing used, insomuch as those Subsidies were rather voluntary without inquiry or any constraint, and alwaies lesse then the Estates of the Realme thought them. Yea, shee commanded it to be referred to the Estates of the Realme that the rich might pay more, and the poorer sort might bee spared. Which was done once in the raigne of Richard the 2nd, but it failed of successe. For casting up the accompts they found that the subsidies would bee very small,if men of meane estates, whereof there was the greatest number (whom wee call The Pound men) should play lesse then they were wont.
3. Also to maintaine amity with her neighbours abroad, shee refused to take into her Protection Gronninghen a most wealthy City of Frisland, which would neither brooke the Spaniards, nor bee under the Estates, lest shee should give offence to the Estates. And though shee were displeased with the Zelanders for that they had begun to call in the French King for their patron, without the knowledge of the Estates of Holland (whereof the French King gave her notice), yet shee reconciled them to the Hollanders; and some in those Provinces shee blamed by publique writings, misliking their doings, who under colour of obedience and good-will towards her sowed dissentions, and opposed themselves against the Estates; and so much the more sharply shee reproved them, for that shee had understood that Richardot had laboured that a toleration and liberty of conscience might bee granted to all the Netherlanders which had fled from the other Provinces, so as they would returne home. Which if it were granted, shee fore-saw would turne to the damage of the Estates, forasmuch as that kind of men inhabited the Townes of Holland which stood formerly in a manner voyd, enriched them, and contributed very much to the warres. The shippes of the Venetians and Florentines taken by the English, shee commanded at the request of the Great Duke of Tuscany to bee restored, and by strict Proclamation commanded her subjects that they should not offer violence to the Italians, Venetians, French, Danes, Netherlanders, or those of the Hanse Townes. Yet did they grievously afflict the Spaniards, whilest some infested the Atlantike Sea neere the Azores, whither the shippes of both Indies must of necessity come, making prize of very many shippes; the Castle in the Isle of Vaiall being razed to the razed to the ground by the Earle of Cumberland, and 58 peeces of Ordnance taken away; others most couragiously brake through the midst of the Gallyes in the straight of Gadiz, doing great damage, and spread a terrour all over the Seas farre and wide.
4. The glory of Queene Elizabeth was now spread abroad, and her favour extended farre, who obtained of the Emperor of the Turkes quietnesse to the Vaivode of Moldavia, who had beene miserably turmoiled by the Turkes, and a peace to the Polonians, who were threatned with a difficult warre. Which the Polonian and his Chancellor acknowledged by most thankefull Letters. In the meane time, to confirme amity with the King of Scots, shee sent Edward Somerset Earle of Worcester to congratulate his marriage, and returne out of Denmarke, and to signifie unto him that he, together with the French King, were chosen into the society of the Order of St. George, but withall, to put him in minde to suppresse betimes the Popish faction growing strong in Scotland. The King received him very graciously, and to maintaine the amity with England, and declare his singular affection to publike peace, sent Colonell Stewart into Germany that some course might bee taken with the King of Denmarke and the Embassadours of the Princes, for renewing the peace betweene English, Spaine, and France.
5. When France flamed with a most dangerous fire raised by the Leaguers and the Spaniard, for the quenching whereof Queene Elizabeth diligently observed al opportunities, and held many consultations how shee might relieve them; whether the English old souldiers in the Low-Countries should joyne themselves with the German forces which were comming; whether shee should send a strong Army into the Netherlands to stay the Prince of Parma who was now casting to come into France; but especially how the Spaniards might bee kept from the coast of France, who were practising to reduce New Haven into their power by corruption, and send a Fleet into little Britaine [Brittany].
6. Behold, in the midst of these consultations the Prince of Parma, entring with a strong Army into France (for so the Spaniard had commanded him, being easily perswaded thereunto by the importunity of the Leaguers, under the glorious shew of maintaining the Catholike Religion, and of Charity towards his neighbour), after that the King had gotten a notable victory over them at Yvory, the Prince over-runneth Picardy, victualleth Paris ,then in rebellion and most miserably famished, winneth Carboil and Leigny that victuals might bee carryed into Paris, and leadeth backe his forces, with greater commendations for his military skill in drawing of trenches with his mens hands after the Roman manner, and in wisely protracting to fight, then for his military discipline in restraining his souldiers, who sacrilegiously violated Churches.
7. On the other side, about the Autumnall Aequinox other companies of Spaniards arrived at Blawes in Britaine, under the conduct of Don John d’Aquila, beleged Henebon a little strong Towne upon the Sea, and wonne it by the help of Philip Emanuell Duke of Mercaure of the house of Loraine, who had called them in when the Leaguers hoped to cantonize, divide France amongst them, and hee himselfe had in minde invaded the Dukedome of Britaine, or at least a part thereof, by the helpe of the Spaniard, and in right of his Wife, which was the sole daughter of Sebastian Martigues, whose Mother Caroletta of Britaine was heire of John Brasse Duke of Estampes. This opportunity the Spaniard had gladly laid hold on, who thought that Britaine did of right belong unto his daughter, forasmuch as it was as a feminine fee, and shee was borne of the eldest daughter of Henry the 2nd King of France, which eldest daugher ought (her Unkles dying without issue) to succeed in the Kingdome of France, unless the Law Salique did withstand it. And though hee was not ignorant that Britaine was in the raigne of Francis the first united for ever to the Kingdome of France, yet did hee not beleeve, as the French Lawyers pronounce, that all whatsoever is once annexed to the Crowne of France doth inseperably grow unto it.
8. Against these Spaniards, as soone as ever they arrived, Henry Borbon Prince of Dumbar, the Duke of Montpensiers sonne, whom with La Noue the King had made Governour of Britaine, craved an auxiliary power out of England. But the Queene and Councell thought it not fit to send forces upon request of a subject, the King neither knowing nor asking it, who was then engaged in businesse else-where, and those most difficult. Yet shee bent her minde and cogitations more attentively to the State of Britaine. That the Spaniard should bring under his subjection so rich a Country, so neere neighbouring, and so commodious to invade or annoy England, Holland, or Zeland, she could not endure. And this (shee said) concerned her more then heretofore it did Edward the 3rd, who with so great charges defended the cause of John Montfort, lest the French should possesse themselves of Britaine. Some there were which advised her to spare her money, to take care of her owne estate, rather than other mens, and to put no trust in the French; that they had beene treacherous to their owne Kings; that they had lately murdered one of them a most devout follower of the Popish Religion; and other being a professor of the Reformed Religion, they now prosecuted with hatefull armes and Popish curses; that within our fathers remembrance they had unjustly drawne from the German Empire Metz, Towl, Verdon; and out of their in-bred hatred they did at that day no lesse prosecute the English their friends, then they did heretofore being their enemies; and had so often deceived them in money matters that such Creditors as they meane to deceived they call by a By-word, Les Anglois. Moreover, that by corrupt counsailes, and the fates driving them forward, they did so rent that most flourishing Kingdome that it seemed to the neighbours rather to bee pitied than feared, whilest as a body over-strong it is burdened with its owne strength, or out of a shittle [fickle] braine, if it have not an enemy abroad, it seeketh one at home. For to that grosse dulnesse are they come (a thing incredible to the subsequent age) that they have invited troupes of Spaniards into France, and received them into their Townes. But the Queene, much affecting the safety and honour of the French, rejected these men as injurious in their censures of that most noble and powerfull Nation; yea, when others both French and English suggested unto her that while the Leaguers and the Spaniard began as it were to share France betwixt them as a prey, and to Cantonize it, shee would also seize upon the maritime Countries of Picardy and Normandy, putting her in minde that Charles of Burgundy the warryer was wont to say, That the neighbouring nations would bee in happy case, when France should be subject, not to one scepter, but to twenty petty Kings, shee heaard it most discontentedly, and rejected it with much stomack, saying, Whensoever the last day of the Kingdome of France commeth, it will undoubtedly be the Eeve of the destruction of England.
9. Whilest these things began to be debated, Ambrose Dudley Earle of Warwicke, the sonne of John Duke of Northumberland, of the Order of Saint George, an excellent good man, departed this life without issue. And not long after, Sir Francis Walsingham the Queenes Secretary, Chancellour of the Dutchy of Lancaster and the Order of the Garter, dyed of a carnosity growing intra testium tunicas [testicular cancer], or rather through violence of medecines. A man exceedingly wise and industrious, having discharged very honourable Embassies, a most sharpe maintainer of the purer Religion, a most diligent searcher of hidden secrets, who knew excellently well how to winne mens mindes unto him, and to apply them to his owne uses; insomuch, as in subtilty and officious services hee surpassed the Queenes expectation, and the Papists accused him as a cunning workeman in complotting his businesses, and alluring men into dangers whilest hee diligently searched out their hidden practises against Religion, his Prince and Country, and that to his so great charges that he weakened his private estate; and being surcharged with debt, he was buried by darke in Paul’s Church at London without any funeral solemnity. He left one onely daughter, which to her her first husband Sir Philip Sidney bare a daughter, married to Roger Earle of Rutland; and to her second husband Robert Earle of Essex a sonne and daughters; and to her third husband the Earle of Clan Richard an Irishman she bare children of both Sexes.
10. After Walsingham survived scarce one or two moneths Thomas Randolph, who was very inward with him. This man, often mentioned already had a brother, namely, Edward, that warriour who died in Ireland a Conquerour in the yeere 1567. In his young dayes hee studied the Civill Law in Christ-Church at Oxford, and was Principall of Broad-gates. Afterwards he performed sundry Embassies, thrice to the Lords of Scotland being in commotion, thrice to Mary Queene of Scots after her returne out of France, seven times to James the 6th King of Scots, thrice to John Basilides Emperor of Russia, once to Charles the 9th King of France, and againe to Henry the 3rd. This manifold paynes for his Prince and Countrey the Queene rewarded with the Office of Chamberlaine of the Exchequer (which in old time was a place full of honour), with the Office of chiefe Poast-master, and some small Farmes. Neither did he desire more, though hee had many children, of such continent moderation was he in coveting. And out of his pious feeling of conscience (which perhaps may doe good to mention) he seriously admonished Walsingham a little before his death by letters which I have seene, how worthy, yea, how necessary a thing it was that they should at length bid farewell to the snares he of a Secretary, and himselfe of an Embassadour, and should both of them set their minds upon their heavenly Countrey, and by repenting aske mercy of God.
11. After him followed Sir James Croft, who in the reygne of Edward the 6th defended Hadington in Scotland against the French, and governed Ireland a while. Under Queene Mary he was condemned of treason, and absolved under Queene Elizabeth, and being made Governour of Barwick and the East march, and Controller of the Queenes houshold, and a Commissioner at the treaty of Bourburg, overcame the Court envy (wherewith notwitstanding he was grievously shaken), waxed old, and dyed in the good favour of his Prince, and sound reputation amongst all men.
12. With the end of the yeere ended the course of his life George Talbot Earle of Shrewesbury, the sonne of Francis, and the seventh Earle of this family. Who being young was in the reigne of Queene Mary first sent forth in the Scottish warre with 3000 men by his father then Generall of the Army, and rescued the Earle of Northumberland being danger at Lonic; and then had the command of a troope of 500 Launces in the marches. By Queene Elizabeth hee was set to have the custody of the Queene of Scots, and after the death of the Duke of Norfolke, was raised to the honour of Earle Marshall of England. In such doubtfull times hee maintained his fidelity 15 yeeres against open treacheries, Court calumniations, and his second Wives vexations, in such sort that hee left no lesse commendations for his fidelity and wisedome, then for his fortitude. By his first Wife Gertrude the daughter of Thomas Earle of Rutland, hee begat these Children: Francis, who was taken way by an untimely death. Gilbert, his successor in his inheritance and honour, who married Mary Cavendish his stepmothers daughter Edward, who tooke to wife the daugher and one of the heires of the Lord Ogle. Henry, and Thomas. Catharine, which married Henry the sonne of the Earl of Penbroke, and dyed without issue. Mary, married to George Savill, and Grace, married to Henry Cavendish By this latter wife Elizabeth the daughter of John Hardwicke, and widdow of William Cavendish, hee had no children. And wee must not omit Thomas Lord Wentworth, who accompanied these to another life. He was the last English Governour of Callis [Calais]; to whom succeeded Henry his second sonne, the eldest being dead before his father.
13. In Ireland the last year Hugh Gavilock, so called, because hee was so long kept in fetter, the base sonne of Shan O-Neale, had accused Hugh Earle of Tir-Oen to have had secret conference with certaine Spaniards shipwracked upon Ireland in the yeere 1588. The Earle, preventing his accusation, tooke him by a plot, and commanded him to be strangled, and whereas the cruell theeves, out of a certaine observance towards the house of O-Neale, refused to offer violence unto him, it is said he set his hand to the poast himselfe to breake his wind-pipe. Heereupon he was now called into England, and upon submission obtained his pardon of the Queene, and with solemne protestations before the Queene at the honour of Greenwich, as Noblemen use to doe, hee undertooke most religiously that he would keepe peace with Turlogh Leinigh and all his neighbours (giving hostages in that behalfe), and not assume unto himselfe the title of O-Neal, nor any authority over the Noblemen his neighbours; that he would reduce the Countrey of Tir-Oen into the forme of a County; that he would not exact of the people under him the Irish paiments called bonaghti; that he would not from thenceforth put any man to death but by Law; that hee would not barre from the English garrisons any graine or victuals at Blackwatrer, or the river More; that hee would not receive into his territory any Monks, Friers, Nunnes, and rebells; that he would doe his best to bring the Inhabitants of Tir-Oen to more civility, and other such like things; yet with this condition, that Turlogh Leinigh and the bordering Lords should in like manner binde their fidelity to keep peace with him, lest whilest hee was quiet, hee might bee exposed to the injuries of turbulent men. Being sent backe into Ireland, he assuredly confirmed before Sir William Fitz-Williams Lord Deputy and the Councellors of that Realme, that hee would doe the same things. And certainly for a while hee omitted nothing which could be expected from a most obedient Subject, and bare a shew of many shadowed tokens of vertue. A strong body he had, able to endure labour, watching, and hunger; his industry was great, his minde great, and able for the greatest businesses; much knowledge hee had in Military skill, and a minde most profound to dissemble, insomuch as some did then fore-tell that he was borne to the very great good or hurt of Ireland. A little before the Lord Deputy had taken Hugh Roe-Mac-Mahon in his house, a great Lord in the territory of Monaghan, whom hee himselfe had preferred before the rest of that family which strived for the Principality, and subjected him to a tryall of common souldiers and base men (as the Irish doe complaine), for that hee had with banners displayed exacted of his people contributions due according to the barbarous manner of the Country, and being condemned, hanged him up, dividing his most large lands and livings betwixt the English and certaine of the Mac-Mahons, appointing them a certaine yeerely rent that they might hold them according to the Lawes of England; and this to the end that hee might weaken that family, strong and powerfull of tenants and adherents, and blot out the tyranny of Mac-Mahon together with the title. For by this title , those of that family wax insolent, which by right or wrong take upon them the domination. Hereupon Brien O-Rorc, a great Lord in the neighbour Country of Brenn, fearing lest the same might befall him, tooke armes against the Queene; but being hunted and put <to> flight by Sir Richard Bingham Governour of Connacht (the Lord Governour taking in indignation that hee was prevented of this glory), hee fled into Scotland, whom the King very willingly delivered into the Queenes hands when shee required him, protesting that hee accompted all the Queenes enemies as his owne. Which hee performed indeed. For both hee neglected with a deafe eare the Popish Noblemen in Scotland, the Earle of Westmorland, and other seditious Englishmen in the Netherlands, who incensed him against the Queene; and made James and Donald Mac-Conels give security that they should not trouble the English in Ireland out of the Hebrides and Scotland.