- История Англии XV-XVII
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- Культура Англии XVI-XVII вв.
- Митрофанов Владимир Петрович
- Экономическое развитие Англии в XVI-середине XVIIв.
- Студентам исторических факультетов
- Английский ренессанс
- Борьба с бедностью и роскошью в Англии
- The peasantry and the English State (the second half of the XVI-th - the first third of the XVII-th centuries)
ANNO DOMINI 1589
AFTER that the expedition of the Spaniards against England had proved so adverse, dishonorable, and fully frustrate, they, to repaire their glory and divert the cogitations of the English from fixing upon an invasion of the Countryes of the King of Spaine, renewed their former designe of infesting England by the way of Scotland. In this business they especially employed Robert Bruse, Priest Chreichton, and Haye of the society of Jesus, who easily drew to their party the Earles of Huntley, Arrol, Crawford, men most devoted to the Popish Religion, and Bothwell the sonne of John Prior of Coldingham, the naturall or base sonne of James the 5th King of Scottes, a man of a fickle head, and others. The summe of their designe was, that having first seized upon the Kings Person, they would let in a foraigne power to restore the Romish Religion, and invade England in revenge of the death of the Queene of Scots. The colours which they pretended for gathering together the multitude were these: That the King was against his will detained in custody by the Lord Chancellour Maitland and the English Faction; that the English, which had lately beheaded the Kings Mother unrevenged, did now prepare Armes to cutt of the Scottish Nobility. That they on the other side tooke Armes by the Kings request, to deliver him forthwith from the custody of the Chancellour, and their Country from destruction. The King being gone to hunting, and upon one and the same day advertised by messengers poasting one in the necke of another, that on the one side Bothwell was hard at hand with troupes of the Borderers from the Country next adjoyning, and on the other side Huntley and the rest approached with a strong Army from the North parts, setteth forth an Edict proclaiming them traytors, and mustereth his faithfull subjects, as many as were above sixteene and under sixty yeeres of age. Heerewith, Bothwell being terrifyed and forsaken, returned home. On the other side, Huntley intercepted in his way Glamis, Captaine of the Kings guard, with whom hee was at deadly fude.
2. Queene Elizabeth, who thought it no lesse concerned the English then the Scots that this designe of the Spaniards should bee defeated, left no stone unturned by her party amongst the Scots, both by money and solid reasons, that the King should suppresse this commotion betimes. Hee, well understanding the danger, marched to encounter Huntley; who being come with a strong Army to Dee-brigg, no sooner heard of the Kings approach, but hee dismissed Glamis and retyred to his own house called Strathbolgy amongst the craggy Hills. Whither when the King hotly pursued him, enduring beyond the strength of his age both want of victualls, and the tediousnesse of labour, and most sharpe ayre, the Earle offered first to yeeld himself saving his life and estate, and soone after to render himselfe absolutely, when no other composition would bee admitted. Yet the King, not vouchsafing him audience, cast him in prison; but shortly after released him, and to his commendations for his clemency, pardoned him and the rest upon submission.
3. The same month that these were done in Scotland against the Favourers of the Spaniard, was Philip Howard Earle of Arundell (who being suspected to favour the Spanish party, was, as I have said, cast into the Tower three yeeres before) arraigned in Westminister Hall, and tryed by his Peeres, before Henry Earle of Derby, made Lord high Steward of Enland for this cause. Unto this were summoned these Peeres:
William Cecill Lord Burghley, Lord high Treasurer of England
William Lord Marquesse of Winchester
Edward Earle of Oxford, Lord great Chamberlaine of England
Henry Earle of Kent
Henry Earle of Sussex
Henry Earle of Penbroke
Edward Earle of Hertford
Henry Earle of Lincoln
The Lord Hunsdon
The Lord Willoughbey of Eresbey
The Lord Morley
The Lord Cobham
The Lord Grey
The Lord Darcy of the North
The Lord Sands
The Lord Wentworth
The Lord Rich
The Lord Willoughbey of Parham
The Lord North
The Lord St. John of Bletnesho
The Lord Buckhurst
The Lord LaWarre, and
The Lord Norrys.
Being commanded to hold up his hand, hee held it up, and withall said, Behold a pure hand, and a sincere heart. The heads of the accusation against him were in a manner the same which I have before mentioned in the yeere 1586, to wit, that hee had contracted a most straight league of amity with Cardinall Allen, Persons the Jesuite, and other traytors which plotted the destruction of their Prince and Country, by exciting both forraigners and naturall subjects against their Prince for the restoring of the Romish Religion. That hee had by letters sent by Weston alias Burges, a Priest, promised to the same Cardinall his helpe and assistance for the advancing of the Catholike cause, and to that purpose had an intent to withdraw himselfe out of the Realme. That hee was privy to the Bull whereby Sixtus Quintus Bishop of Rome had deposed the Queene, and exposed her Kingdome for a prey to the Spaniard. That being imprisoned in the Tower of London, hee had caused Masse to bee celebrate for the prosperous successe of the Spanish Fleete, and in that respect hee had conceaved peculiar prayers himselfe. Of these things being asked whether he were guilty or not guilty, hee turned him to the Justicers Assistents, and demanded these things in order. First, whether it were lawfull to heape up so many crimes in one Accusation or Inditement. They answered, It was. Then, whether arguments from presumptions were of force in an inditement. They answered, It was lawfull him for to interpose his exception against them. Then, whether hee might bee accused of those things which in the thirteenth yeere of the Queene are reckoned amongst crimes of high Treason, after that time in that act prescribed. They promised that hee should not bee proceeded against by any other Law or Act of high treason then an ancient one of Edward 3rd. Lastly, whether that were a lawfull Inditement, wherin are errors in the notation both of places and times. They pronounced that these things are not to bee regarded, so the fact be proved. After this, being asked againe whether he were guilty, or not guilty, hee answered, Not guilty, and submitted himselfe to the judgement of God and his Peeres, but craved that his weake memory, failing by meanes of his imprisonment and indisposition of health, might not be over-charged with confused multiplicity of matters. Puckering the Queenes Sergeant at Law beginning, laid open at large the first part of the Inditement, to wit, that Cardinall Allen had undertaken dangerous counsailes and designes with the Jesuites and others against his Prince and Countrey, and in that respect was proscribed; yet the Earle had intercourse of letters with him, and had written expresly about promoting the Catholike cause, and this could not be understood but of invading of England. The Earle answered that he ment nothing but that the Catholike Religion might be promoted by the conversion of many. Popham, the Queenes Atturney generall, laboured to prove by the confessions of Savage, Throgmorton, and Babington, that this could not be understood of a conversion by instruction, but an invasion by armes. Sclutworth Sargeant at law made it plaine by the proclamations against Jesuites and Seminary Priests to what intent they were sent into England. That the were traytours hee affirmed out of the Earles owne mouth, who, when Volongers cause about a Libell was handled in the Star-Chamber, had said openly, Hee that is thorowly Popish, the same man cannot but bee a traytor. Yet did the Earle admit this kinde of men into his familiarity. That he was reconciled to the Romish Church, and thereby had subjected himselfe to the Bishop of Rome. This the Earle flatly denyed, and required a witnesse of his reconciliation to be produced. Hee acknowledged that he had confessed his sinnes to Burges. Hereupon it was argued that no man, unlesse hee were reconciled, could bee admitted to the sacraments of the Romish Church, but hee was admitted by Gratley a Priest, and therefore reconciled before. Popham strained to prove with great force of words, by the letters themselves, that hee was reconciled, that hee had also a purpose to goe into forraigne Countryes, and thereby had committed treason, and drawing forth Gratly’s and Morgan’s letters to the Queene of Scots, hee concluded that hee embraced the Romish Religion out of stomacke, not out of conscience. Then he exhibited an Emblemen found in the Earles Cabbinete, wherein was painted a hand shaking a Serpent into the fire, with this inscription, IF GOD BEE WITH US, WHO SHOULD BEE AGAINST US? and on the other side, a Lyon rampant, his talons cut off, with this adscription, YET A LYON. Hee added that the Earle having a purpose to depart the Land, the Cardinal perswaded him not to goe, as one that might deserve better of the Church of Rome remaining within England, then without. That in a letter written to the Queene he had contumelously slandered the Justice of England in the judgements of death given against his Grandfather and his father. That the Queene of Scots had commended him to Babington to bee the chiefe head of the Catholikes. That Allen had signified that that Bull was obtained by the earnest intercession of a Great man in England; which must needs bee the Earle himselfe, forasmuch as none other of the Great ones was more familiar with Allen, and whom hee could not but know to have been a Traytor to his Country by those things which he had heard before, being present in the Star-Chamber. There were also read the confessions of the Earles brother the Lord William, and his sister the Lady Margaret, and his own letters when he thought to depart the Land; and the Queens clemency was magnified, who at that time would not have him questioned for treason, but for a contempt. To these things the Earle answered intermixtly that the Embleme was a toy and trifle given him by his man. That hee had vowed his helpe to the Cardinall for the Catholike cause, but not against his Country or Prince. That what hee had written concerning the judgements against his Grandfather, and his Father, was extant in the Annals. That what the Cardinall and the Queene of Scots had written of him belonged not to him, seeing he did no such thing. That no man can command other pennes. That he had a purpose to serve in the warres under the Prince of Parma, when hee could not stay safely at home for the rigor of the Lawes against Papists. That the Atturney had (as the Spider useth) sucked poyson out of flowers, but hee could sucke wholsome matter out of the same if hee might see them. Then were read Allens letters to the Queene of Scots, and the Bishop of Rosse his letters for invading of England since the yeere wherein he purposed his flight. Also the Bull of Sixtus Quintus, and certaine points picked out of Allens admonition to the English printed at Antwerp the yeere before. Moreoever, this title was urged, Philip Duke of Norfolke, found amongst his papers, forasmuch as Allen had advised him to assume a higher title. These things were to convince him of treason before his imprisonment. Egerton the Solliciter, or secondary Atturney, having summarily repeated all this, argued by a threefold distinction of time, to wit, before the Spanish Fleete came, when it was come, and when it fled, that hee had committed treason also after his imprisonment: Before it came, in wishing it a happy successe; when it came, in conceaving peculiar prayers for a happy successe, and causing the Masse of the holy Ghost to bee celebrate, and prayers used 24 houres together without intermission; and when it fled, in bewayling the unhappy successe thereof with an extraordinary sorrow, so as he seemed to have put his whole hope in the hostile Armado of the Spaniards against his Country and Prince. These things were witnessed against him by Sir Thomas Gerard Knight, William Shelley, who in the yeere 1586 was condemned of treason, Bennet a Papish priest, and other prisoners. Hee muttred softliy that the prayers by him conceaved, and the masses celebrate, were to divert a massacre which hee had heard was intended against the Catholikes. Gerards testimonyes hee strongly denyed, and adjuring him to utter nothing but truth, laying before him the dreadfulnesse of the last day, hee so terrified the man that hee spake little to purpose. Bennets testimony hee extenuated, as a man of doubtfull credit, who confessed things repugnant in themselves; and so of the rest as men guilty, imprisoned, dishonest, and unworthy to bee credited, as if they had beene suffered to converse with him that he might the easilier be insnared in the dangers of the Lawes. Which when it was reprehended in him, as being over-bold against the witnesses for the Queene, an ancient Law of Richard the 2nd was upon the motion of the Solliciter read, whereby it was declared that the Crowne of England was under the command of none but God alone, and the Bishop of Rome had no right thereunto. The day now growing towards evening, when nothing more was objected the Earle being to be led aside, humbly submitted himselfe to the judgement of his Peeres, protesting his obedience to the Queene, and praying that they might doe that which might redound to God’s glory, the Queenes safety, and their honour with a cleer conscience. They departing aside, consulted amongst themselves a full houre, calling unto them the Justicers to satisfie them in some things concerning the Law. Being returned to their seats, they were asked by the Clerke of the Crowne whether the Earle were guilty or not. Every one of them, putting his hand ceremoniously to his brest, affirmed upon his honour and conscience, Hee was guilty. He then being asked if hee had any thing to say why sentence of death should not be given against him, said the same which his father had said before in the same place, Gods will bee done. Sentence being pronounced, hee prayed that hee might speake with his wife, that hee might see his young sonne which was borne after hee was imprisoned, that hee might speake with his Stewards and Keepers of his bookes of accompts, and that his debts might bee payed; that the Queene would take his young sonne into her protection, and vouchsafe him her gracious favour. Now did the Lord Steward breake his staffe, the badge of his Stewardship, and the Earle was led backe to the Tower of London, the Axe being borne before him with the edge towards him. That this flower of Nobility faded so untimely (for hee had scarce seene 33 yeeres) some lamented, others extolled the Queenes wisedome, that by this example she had stricken a terrour into the more powerfull Papists. For shee spared his life, and held it sufficient thus to have weakened the power of so great a man, and so highly gracious with the Pope.
4. Which when shee had done at home by this judgement for a terrour, that shee might also performe as much abroad, and prosecute the Victory against the Spaniard given her by God, supposing it more safe and honourable to assaile the enemy then to be assailed, shee suffered a Fleete to bee set forth into Spaine, which by a great adventure, and a certaine military alacrity never sufficiently to bee commended, Sir John Norrys and Sir Francis Drake (being perswaded that the power of the Spaniard in Spaine consisted more in opinion then in strength) rigged and prepared at their owne and other private mens charge, requiring nothing almost of the Queene but a few shippes of warre, a conditon being made that the ships and spoyles taken should bee divided amongst them. To this action of warre fewer gave their names then they thought. The Estates joyned some ships, although they were somewhat discontented with the English, for that Wingfield Governour of Gertrudenberg and the English garrison had betrayed that towne to the Spaniards. There were numbred about eleven thousand souldiers and fifteene hundred sayers. Don Antonio, base borne Prior of Crato, with a few Portugalls joyned with them, who clayming the Kingdome of Portugall by popular election (whereby even Bastards have beene chosen Kings by the Law of that Country), had loaden the English with great promises, being full of hope to recover his Kingdome by the helpe of these auxiliary forces, the revolt of the Portugalls from the Spaniard, and the ayde of Muley Hamet King of Morocco.
5. Setting sayle from Plimmouth in the month of Aprill, they arrived the 5th day after at the Groyne in Gallicia (called by the ancients Flavia Brigantum) without resistance. In passing towards the base towne, they sustained some losse by many shott made at them out of a ship of huge burden and two gallies in the Haven, untill with certaine great Peeces planted on the shore they removed them farther off. The next day they assaulted the said base towne on three sides all at one instant. From the continent, on the one side Unton and Brett with 300 men, and on the other side Sir Richard Wingfield and Samson with 500. These were roughly entertained, and once or twice throwne downe from their scaling ladders and repulsed, while the rest in the meanetime brake into the towne, almost without any losse. The Spaniards presently threw away their armes, and escaped by their knowne narrow passages to the higher towne. They which were in that huge ship got to land, having first fired the ship, which burnt two dayes together, and most of her ordnance being over-charged with powder, flew in pieces with a horrible noyse. The victuals of all sorts and provisions of warre for a new voyage against England were conveighed aboord the English ships.
6. Then marched they up to the higher towne, which when Sir John Norris observed to be seated on a rocke, and to bee underminable in one place onely, hee commanded a myne there to bee digged; on the other side hee made a breach in the walls with his great Ordnance, and resolved to give an assault on both sides at once, but in vaine, the fire breaking forth of the myne on the outside of the walls. The Pioners myned againe farther under the foundation of the walls, and giving fire to the powder, one part of the Bullwarke above fell downe, the other soone after falling slew and maimed some English underneath. The rest, terrified with the sudden chance, forsooke their Leaders. They which on the other side gave the assault in the breach, having no good footing, the rubbidge slipping under them, retyred with the losse of many men.
7. Now had Norris certaine intelligence that the Condy di Adrada had gathered forces together at Burges Brudge, and that the Condy di Altamira hastened with more, purposing to besiege the English in the base towne, or to cut off their returne to their ships. Hee, supposing it best to prevent them, marched against them with ten Companies. In the Vaunt-gard were placed Edward Norrice and William Sidney; in the middle Battaile Norris himselfe, with Medkerk a Low-country man; in the Rere Henry Norris, Huntley, and Brett. On this side the Bridge the Spanish encountred them, but, being manfully beaten backe to the Bridge, they gave an easie passage to the English, quitting their Barricado; who pressed so hotly upon them that they presently fled confusedly and were slaughtered by the space of three miles. The English pillaged and fired the Villages round about. After two dayes they went aboord their shippes againe without any trouble; and whilest they directed their course towards Portugall, the wind being very contrary, Robert Earle of Essex fell amongst them, who being very young, had out of his heat of military glory, hatred against the Spaniards, and commiseration towards Don Antonio, despising the pleasures of the Court, committed himselfe to sea without the Queenes knowledge, yea, to the incurring of her displeasure, and had long sought the Fleete. For hee had no hope to obtaine leave of the Queene to goe, who would not that any of the prime Nobility should hazzard themselves in this voyage. Yet hee hoped to command in chiefe, seeing his Brother was one of the Horsemen, and hee had many of the Colonells and Captaines fast bound unto him, as whom hee had preferred. The second day after, the sea being much troubled, they arrived at Penicha a Towne of Portugall, and with the losse of some men drowned in landing (the inhabitants presently running away) they become masters of the towne, and the Castle was rendred to Don Antonio. From hence the foot forces under the command of Sir John Norris, marched with speed by land to Lisbone, which was from thence about 60 miles; and Drake promised to follow with the Fleete by the River Tagus or Taio. In the way they called a Councell of warre at Torres Vedras, and resolved to encampe on the East side of the City to barre succours from comming out of Spaine, and make the accesse the more easie for the Portugals to their King. At the sixth remove, they came to the West suburbes of Lisbone, called Saint Catharines, without resistance, where they stayed contrary to that they had appointed, and saw none but poore people unarmed, crying now and then God save King Antonio, for Albert of Austria, who governed there, had already taken away from the Portugals their armes. The next day, when the English being sicke and weary with their long march, betooke themselves to their rest, the Spanish Garrison sallyed out, and Brett with his men manfully retained their force untill more English and Portugals, comming in in good time to their succour, beat them backe into the City, Essex chasing them to the very Gate. Yet Brett, Carsey, Carr, stout Commanders, and some common souldiers were slaine. When they had stayed heere now two dayes, and there appeared no hope at all of a revolt of the Portugals, as Don Antonio in a credulous hope had boasted, and the King of Morocco sent not his promised ayde, and fresh forces flocked in great number from the East parts into the City, and sickenesse daily waxed hot throughout the Army, victuals and powder failed, and great Ordnance were not brought by Drake to batter the walls, the English carrying away nothing at all out of the suburbs (which were very rich in forraine marchandies) lest they should alienate the hearts of the Portugals, tooke their way towards Cascais a small towne at the mouth of the River, the Spaniards following them very slowly and not so much as cutting off any of the tayle of the Army. Of Drake, who had in the meane time taken Cascais, they spake disgracefully, as if through his cowardize they had failed of their hoped victory, for that hee followed not with the Fleete as he had promised. Hee excused it by the impossibility, for that hee could not passe by the channell of Alcacava by reason of the shelves and shallowes. If hee had gone straight by the Port of Saint Julians, which was fortified with 50 great Peeces, and many Gallyes their lying with their prowes towards him, hee had exposed the Fleete to most certaine danger, neither had there beene any hope to return, but most certain overthow, if the enemies ships had in the meane time opposed themselves against them at the mouth of the River Taio; and the Fleete perishing, he shewed that the Army could not but perish withall. Then was the Castle of Cascais taken by surrender, and a great part of it blowne up with Gun-powder. There to recompence their charges they tooke about 60 Hulkes of the Hanse Townes of Germany, laden with wheat and all manner of provision for shipping, to furnish a new Armado against England, which had sayled by the Orcades, the Hebrides, and Ireland, a long and dangerous voyage, lest they should bee taken, notwithstanding that the Queene had before by her letters warned the Hanse-Townes that they should not carry any victuals or provision for warre into Spaine or Portugall, under paine of losse of ships and goods. The English setting sayle from thence (whilest Don Antonio with all this entreatyes could not prevaile with them to tarry longer) fired Vigo a coast Towne forsaken, and, pillaging the Country neere adjoyning, returned into England with 150 Peeces of great Ordnance and a very rich booty, whereof some part was shared amongst the Saylors, who had begun to mutine, and yet satisfied them not. Yet most of the English thought themselves abundantly satisfied both for revenge and glory, in that they had in so short a time forced one Towne by scalado, valiantly assaulted another, put to flight the forces of a most potent King, landed in foure severall places, marched through the enemies Country seven dayes in battaile aray and colours displayed, attempted a very great City with a small power of men, lodged 3 whole nights in the suburbs thereof, beaten back the enemy sallying forth unto the very Gate, taken two Castles coasting upon the sea, and spoyled the enemy of his provision for warre. Yet others there were which thought that all this did not recompence the losses they sustained, having lost 6000 valiant Warryers and Saylors by sicknesse. But the truth is, England reaped this benefit by this voyage, that from this time forward it feared nothing from Spaine, but tooke greater courage against the Spaniards. Whether this deadly sickenesse befell the English through immoderate drinking of wine, eating of fruit, intemperatenesse of the ayre, or all of them together, hath been diversely disputed. And it hath beene observed that all the land expeditions of the English hitherto into Spaine have beene mortall unto them; as that of John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster about the yeere 1386, wherein of 20000 English 10000 perished; and that of the Marquesse of Dorset in the yeere 1512, wherein of 10000 one thousand dyed in a short time of sickenesse, and that in the hither coast of Spaine. But the learned have noted that Armies passing from the South into the North doe harden according as the inward heat is cooled or kept in by the ourward ayre; and that true it is which Vitruvius writeth: They which are transported from cold Countryes into hot cannot endure, but are dissolved; but they which are removed out of hot places into cold Countries under the North, doe not onely not impaire in their healths by change of place, but also waxe strong.
8. When the Hanse Townes made sore complaints, mingled even with threats, of the taking of their Hulkes, as if their ancient priviledges were violated, the Queene answered that shee had forewarned them that they should not carry any provision for warre to the enemies of the Realme of England; that carrying such provisions shee had lawfully taken them, and could doe no other, unlesse shee would wilfully draw destruction upon her selfe and her people. That privileges, which are private lawes, are not to bee maintained against the publike safety, which is the highest law. Yea, in that Privilege of King Edward the first, granted to the Hanse Townes, it is expresly provided that they should not carry any marchandize into the Lands of the open and notorious enemies of the Kingdome of England. And that their marchandize have beene often stayed and detained, for that in the heat of warre they had supplyed provisions to the French. And this, not onley by the English, but also for the same cause by Charles the 5th, the Kings of Sweden, Denmarke, Poland, and very lately by the Prince of Orange, and that by the Law of Nations. That the right of neutrality is in such sort to bee used; that while wee helpe the one, wee hurt not the other. That it becometh not Cities and Townes to use threats unto Kings. For her part shee feareth not the threats of the greatest Kings, much lesse of Cities. And for the rights of neighbor-hood, shee will most religiously observe them with all men.
9. And observe them shee did indeed. For not onely did shee assist the King of Navarre when hee was involved in a difficult warre, both with present money, and warlike provision, but also strengthened and confirmed the French King by Sir Thomas Bodley, sent unto him privily when hee despaired of his estate. For (to fetch the matter a little higher by a short but necessary digression) when the Duke of Anjou the Kings Brother was dead without Children, the King had no issue, nor that hee should have was their any hope, and the Kingdome did of right belong to the King of Navarre, and after him to the Prince of Condey, both of them maintainers of the Reformed Religion, the Popish Princes of France, with the privity of the Bishop of Rome and the Spaniard, secretly entred into a most dangerous conspiracy, under colour of defending the Catholike Religion, by the name of the Holy union or League, to over-throw the King by kindling a publike hatred against him through corrupt counsailes, and utterly to extirpate the Reformed Religion by preventing the lawfull succession to the Crowne. They which gave their names to this League bound themselves by oath that they would in no sort suffer any man to raigne in France which either had professed or would professe any other then the Catholike Religion; neither should they admit him which had beene bred in any other Religion, though hee should abjure the same, lest having gotten the Crowne, hee should abolish the old Religion. That all this tended to the excluding of Navarre, and his Cousin of Condey, no man doubted. This conspiracy also raged openly in all places, creeping abroad by little and little, as it were by degrees. The Duke of Guise the Chiefe of this conspiracy, forasmuch as hee had hitherto being a young man, manfully defended Poitiers against the Protestants, and defeated the German Horsemen which Alencon had called in, and had (not long before) put to flight that huge Army of Germans under the Baron Dohna, was by the common people and the Church-men every where extolled with immoderate praises above the King, as the onely upholder of the Romish Religion, and the mall [maul, hammer] of the Protestants. Hee entring into Paris raised such a tumult that the King himselfe was faine to depart the City, summoned a meeting at Blois, consented to this union, for the cutting off those of the Reformed Religion by an Edict of July proclaimed the Duke of Guise great Master of the French Warre, and received the holy Sacrament with him for confirmation of their mutuall fidelity. Yet soone after, whilest he stood in feare of him whom hee had made to bee feared, and made him so great that hee could not bee questioned by the Lawes, and suspected that his minde made over-much haste to higher matters not granted, being perswaded that there was a plot layed by the Duke to take away his life, and that there was no other meanes left to maintaine his royall authority but to make him away, hee caused him by men layed in wait to bee stab’d within the City walls, and presently after his brother the Cardinall to be strangled, and the Duke of Guise his sonne, the Cardinall of Borbon, and the Conspirators as many as hee could take, he committed to prison. Hereupon there grew so great a confusion throughout France that the fairest joynt of the French Empire seemed that it would fall asunder into many pieces. For the people, scorning every where to obey the Magistrates, pillaged the Kings house at Paris; of the Cities some affected a Democracy, some an Aristocracy, others an Oligarchy, most of them rejecting a monarch. The Conspirators, setting up a new Councell and making a new seale for the government of their affaires, arrogated to themselves Kingly authority, seized upon all the places of greatest strength, yea, upon whole provinces, intercepted the revenues of the Crowne, and called the Spaniards out of the Low-Countryes to their ayde, whilest foure of the principall Senates of France (called Parliaments) gave their voyces unto them, and the Church-men everywhere sounded the alarme to warre against their King.
10. Insomuch as the King was fayne to flye unto the Protestants whom hee had prosecuted, and that other side, betaking themselves to a detestable villany, murdered him by the hands of James Clement a Monke. The King of Navarre, whom the King at his death had declared his Successor according to law and right, they excluded from the Crowne by proclamation, as one detected of heresye, and which had drawne in hostile Armies into his Countrye. But whom they should make their King they could not agree upon. Charles Duke de Mayen Brother to the Duke of Guise which was slaine, thought the Crowne was to bee bestowed upon him for the great services hee had done against the Protestants, the chiefe Cities had offered obedience unto him, and the Cardinall of Borbon was now kept in prison, whom, being a Priest and a weake man, the French a warlike Nation could not brooke. By creating him King also, they should acknowledge the title of the House of Borbon, and renew the outworne title of the Unkle against the Nephew. Others maintained that the Duke of Lorain,or some one of his Children was to bee preferred, that this family, having beene heretofore unjustly deprived of the Crowne of France by Hugh Capet, might now at length after a long discontinuance bee justly restored; that the King of Spaine would favour this family, and would willingly give his daughter in marriage to one chosen out of the same. Others named the Savoyard sonne to the King of France his daughter, and sonne in law to the Spaniard, a neighbour Prince, strong and valiant. Some preferred the Duke of Guise for his Grandfathers and his Fathers merits towards the Romish Religion and the Common-wealth. And there were not some wanting which gave their flattering voyces for the Spaniard, as the most potent of all. Yet the greatest part, that they might seeme to embrace justice and right, inclined to the Cardinall of Borbon, one neerer by one degree to the murdered King then his Nephew of Navarre, and one which had suffered much for the Catholike cause, who might easily bee delivered out of prison, and by whom the Catholikes might bee conjoyned without forraine aydes to suppresse the professors of the Reformed Religion. To this opinion they agreed, especially through the perswasion of Mendoza the Spaniard’s Embassadour, who throught that this bridge a way might easily be made for the Spaniard to the Scepter of France. The Cardinall therefore of Bourbon is proclaimed King of France, moneys are stamped with his image, and the Title of Charles the tenth. The Duke de Mayen is proclaimed Lieutenant generall of the Crowne of France, who forthwith gathering forces from all parts, advanced his mortall ensignes against Navarre (who being in like manner by his party most justly proclaimed King of France, lay now at Diepe, a coast Towne of Normandy) in assured hope either to take him prisoner, or drive him out of France.
11. The King of Navarre, being brought to these straights, encamping with his forces neere to the Towne, sent in haste into England, first, Monsieur Beavoir de Noecte, and soone after Buhy and Bunzenval, to crave ayde, and to offer a League a well of offence as of defence. The Queene, lest shee should faile a King of the same profession, and flourishing in Martiall glory, in so dangerous estate, and fearing lest his his stipendary Germans and Switzers should through corruption revolt, supplied him presently with 22 thousand pounds of English money in gold (a summe of golden quoine so great as hee professed hee had never seene together before), and sent him Armes and 4000 men under the command of Peregrine Lord Willoughbey, who had with commendation commanded the Army in the Low-Countryes after Leicester was gone. Shee appointed Colonells Sir Thomas Wilford, who was made Marshall, Sir John Borroughs, Sir William Drury, and Sir Thomas Baskervill Knights, and readily assigned them a months pay aforehand. Hereupon the Leaguers, who a little before were beyond all expectation put to flight by the King in the battell at Arques, now casting away all hope, packed away the day before the English arrived.
12. The King strengthened with these succours, marched with his Army towards Paris. The English and the Switzers, being commanded to set upon that part which lyeth betweene Saint Marcels Gate and the Seine, brake through the Trenches and the Rampart, and passed as far as Saint Victors Gate, and missed narrowly but they had entred. But the King, who thought not that so great and populous a City could bee wonne with so small a power of men, and had no lust to expose it for a prey, which shortly hee hoped would bee under his subjection, nor could draw forth the Duke de Mayen to battell, sounded the Retreit. From thence hee marched to Estampes, left Willoughbey with the English by the way to barre the passage against the Leaguers, whilest the Towne with the Castle is yeelded upo unto him. Afterward Vendosme is taken by force; which with the County of Vendosme (to note it by the way) Robert Willoughbey Governour of Normandy received in old time of gift from Henry the 5th for his valour. Then did the English stout service in reducing into the Kings hands Maienne, Alencon, Falaise, Luxon, and Honfleur; where being wearied with all the difficulties of a winter expedition, having marched about 500 miles, they were dismissed with commendations, and as many as remained alive returned into England. There dyed of sickenesse Captain Hunnings, Stubs who (as I said) had his right hand cut off for a Booke against the Duke of Anjou’s marriage with the Queene, and who left behind him a great misse of him, Sir William Drury a very noble and elegant Gentleman, being slaine in single combat by Sir John Borroughs whilest hee being a Knight contented with Boroughs a Barons younger sonne for the more honourable place, contrary to the order prescribed in the ranke of the English Nobility.
13. The Queene would not that the English should have beene discharged, and the King was sorry for it, being both of them advertised by sure intelligence that the King of Spaine did covertly gape after the Kingdome of France. For hee had propounded in an Assembly of the Leaguers, by the Commendator Morea John de Taxis, and Don Bernardine de Mendoza, that forasmuch as hee had to his so great charged supplyed them with so great succours, hee might bee proclaimed Protector of the Catholikes in France, with the same prerogative which hee enjoyeth in the Kingdomes of Naples and Sicily, to bestow offices both civill and Eclessiasticall in France upon whom hee would by his delegates. Which when Cardinall Caietan also the Popes Nuncio earnestly sollicited, hee moved many true hearted French-men even most Catholikely affected to stomacke it.
14. As Queene Elizabeth desired nothing more then to establish Navarre in the Kingdome of France, so had shee now of late much affected to match his sister the Lady Catharine to the King of Scots in marriage. For both these things seemed necessary to repell the attempts of the Papists against the Protestants. But the matter succeeded not, for that shee was somewhat too old, scarce rich enough, and her Brother exhausted by the warres. And whereas that King had now and then asked advise of Queene Elizabeth concerning the choosing of a wife, and shee answered him but slowly, the Scots began to suspect, yea and to clamor openly that the English in their crafty purposes envied the King both honour and issue, as well to escape revenge for the putting of his mother to death, as to exclude the Scottish Line from the succession in England. Which when shee had heard, shee advised the King to take such a wife as might especially please himselfe and not displease his people, and by whom amity might be kept with the Queene without suspition. And hee, who above a yeere before had applyed his mind to Anne the daughter of Fredericke the 2nd King of Denmarke (whom Queene Elizabeth commended above all others), with royall ceremonies contracted marriage with her in the month of August this yeere by the happy negotiation of the Earle Marshall, by proxy in words preconceaved. But when she,e sayling into Scotland, was in the midst of her voyage driven backe by hideous tempests into Norwey, her Fleete being so weather-beaten and distressed that it could not put to sea againe, hee, having first advised with Queene Elizabeth, who had sent Presents to the solemnizing of the mariage, sayled over into Norwey in the month of October in an extreme cold time, to consummate the marriage within the yeere, as the Estates of the Realme had appointed and hee himselfe had vowed; which was happily consummate, and in those parts hee stayed til May, not finding a commodious time to returne sooner.
15. Some there were that thought these Tempests were raysed by the sorceries of Magicians and Witches, for that the windes were more blustering, the waters more rough and lofty, the gusts more short and frequent, then those which proceed of naturall causes; and that the Devils the Princes of the ayre doe rage more licentiously amongst the Northern Nations which are barbarouisly simple, and destitute of the light of the Gospell. And indeed, these mens opinion was confirmed by certaine Magicians and Witches taken in Scotland, who confessed openly that they had raised those stormes to drive the Queene from the coasts of Scotland, and that Bothwell had consulted with them concerning the Kings death. Which for that it was a capitall crime among the Scots by a Law of Queene Mary, hee was cast in prison; but after a short time hee brake out of prison, and gave beginning to new commotions in Scotland.
16. In England this yeere departed this life Frances Countesse of Sussex, the widow of Thomas Earle of Sussex, sister to Sir Henry Sidney, a Lady worthy to be remembered, for that shee founded Sidney-Sussex Colledge in Cambridge for Students; imitating Sir Walter Mildmay, who about this time passed into his heavenly Country, a man of remarkable piety and singular wisedome, having discharged all the offices of a good Citizen and a good man, having beene by King Henry the eight made Surveyor of the Court of Augmentations, by King Edward the 6th knighted, and by Queene Elizabeth taken into her Privy Councell, and made Chancellor and Under-treasurer of her Exchequer, who for the advancement of piety and learning built Emanuell Colledge at Cambridge in the yeere 1584, in which are maintained 62 Students under a Master. In his place was substituted Sir John Fortescu, an upright man, excellently well learned in Greeke and Latine, who was overseer of the Queenes liberall studies and Master of the Queenes Wardrobe a long time, and gave mee light in some things as I was writing hereof.
17. At this time also William Somerset Earle of Worcester, rendered his soule to God in his declining age, being sonne to Henry and grandson to Charles; to whom succeeded Edward his onely Sonne, so fruitfull of issue that he had more children of both sexes then of late all the Earles of England had.
18. And now also these that follow paid their debt to nature: John Lord Sturton, the eldest sonne of Charles (whom Queene Mary made an example of her justice for homicide) by the Lady Anne Stanley, the daughter of Edward Earle of Darby, to whom succeeded Edward his brother; Henry Lord Compton, a man of a flourishing wit and sound judgement, leaving for his heire William his sonne by Frances Hastings the daughter of Francis Earle of Huntingdon; and at Bruxels Thomas Lord Paget, who being most devoted to Mary Queene of Scots, and thereof suspected, withdrew himselfe out of England, as I have said in anno 1585, leaving one onely sonne, William, by Nazareth Newton, but to the generality of learning he left a sadde misse of himselfe; and Laurence Humfrey an Oxford man, Doctor of Divinity, who in the reigne of Queene Mary, living an exile in Germany, translated Origen de Recta Fide, and Philo de Nobilitate out of Greeke, and wrote three Bookes de Nobilitate, which he intituled Optimates. Returning home, he was made President of Magdalen Colledge in Oxford, where he had his education, and the Queenes Professor of Theologie, where by reading a publik Lecture many yeeres, by Preaching, and much writing, he profited the Church, and deserved commendation. Yet did hee attaine to no higher dignity in the Church then the Deanry of Winchester, haply for that he did not consent with the Church of England concerning things indifferent.